Dr. Paul J. Carnegie


Associate Professor, Institute of Asian Studies


Paul Carnegie is Associate Professor of Politics and International Relations at the Institute of Asian Studies, Universiti Brunei Darussalam. His research specializes in comparative democratization, human security and localized responses to militant extremism with a specific focus on Indonesia and Southeast Asia alongside the Asia Pacific more generally. Paul has published widely in his fields including the monograph The Road from Authoritarianism to Democratization in Indonesia (Palgrave Macmillan), the edited volume Human Insecurities in Southeast Asia (Springer) and research output in leading international journals including Pacific Affairs, Australian Journal of Politics and History and Australian Journal of International Affairs. He is also a section editor for the Palgrave Handbook of Ethnicity. Paul has extensive applied research experience and networks having lived and worked previously in Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Egypt, Fiji and the United Arab Emirates.


PhD (Queensland)
LLB(Hons) DipLP MPhil (Dundee)


Comparative democratization
Human security
Politics and International Relations
Militant extremism
Identity and power relations
Southeast Asia


Reorganizing Constitutional Power in Indonesia: An Anatomy of the 1999-2002 Reforms

Proposing constitutional reform and the process of establishing it are two distinct matters. The former is a normative projection of what could be whilst the latter is the manner in which reform is brought about and whether it persist over time. In reality, translating proposals into accepted practice involves overcoming legacies of the past. It is a process that is invariably fraught and often generates mixtures of trade-off and compromise. The following project examines the merits or otherwise of a gradualist approach to constitution-making. By anatomizing the constitutional reform process that took place in Indonesia from 1999-2002, it considers whether or not such an approach is appropriate for establishing meaningful constitutionalism in plural and divided societies.

Applications Invited

Human Security, Marginality and Precariousness in Southeast Asia

A central problem in examining multiple insecurities in Southeast Asia is that each country confronts a different context of human security. Besides the obvious threats and impediments to human security posed by conflict or natural disaster there are a range of often unseen and specific challenges embedded in people’s daily-lived experience. The ambiguous ways in which the ‘invisibility’ of their situations are conditioned and configured are neither readily recognized nor understood. State-led action tends to be generic and imitative rather than addressing effectively the conditioning factors and social imaginary that render individuals and communities insecure. How then are we to proceed? The following project considers this question by examining the complex relationships between ‘safety’ and ‘risk’ and that of ‘trust’ and ‘uncertainty’. It argues that the field of human security needs to engage more fully with a range of sociological and anthropological concepts and approaches if it is to gain greater analytical purchase on Southeast Asia’s precarious lives in the 21st Century. In particular, the project will focus on the utility of important theoretical and empirical developments on marginality and their relevance for the Southeast Asian context.

Applications Invited

Google Scholar Citations


Google Scholar h-index


Google Scholar i10-index


Carnegie, P.J. and V.T King (2020). Mapping Circumstances in Oceania: Reconsidering Human Security in an Age of Globalization. In S. Amin, D. Watson and C. Girard (eds.) Mapping Security in the Pacific. New York: Routledge, Chapter 2.
Carnegie, P.J. (2019). Ethno-nationalism and Power: An Introduction. In S. Ratuva (eds.) Palgrave Handbook of Ethnicity. Singapore: Palgrave MacMillan, pp.535-537.
Carnegie, P.J. (2019). National Imaginary, Ethnic Plurality and State Formation in Indonesia. In S. Ratuva (eds.) Palgrave Handbook of Ethnicity. Singapore: Palgrave MacMillan, pp. 791-807.
Carnegie, P. J. (2019). Popular Revolt and Military Intransigence in Egypt. In Ratuva, S. et al (eds.) Guns & Roses: Comparative Civil-Military Relations in the Changing Security Environment, New York: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 39-53.
Carnegie, P.J. & S. Tarte (2018). The politics of transition in Fiji: Is it charting a democratic course? Australian Journal of Politics and History, 64(2), pp. 277-292.
Carnegie, P.J. & V.T. King (2018). Towards a social science understanding of human security. Journal of Human Security Studies, 7:1, pp. 1-17.
Carnegie, P.J. (2017). State, security and militancy in Indonesia. In Romaniuk, S.N., Grice, F., Irrera, D. and Webb, S.T. (eds.) Palgrave Handbook of Global Counterterrorism Policy. Singapore: Palgrave MacMillan, pp. 733-747.


Carnegie, P.J. (2019). National Imaginary, Ethnic Plurality and State Formation in Indonesia. In S. Ratuva (eds.) Palgrave Handbook of Ethnicity. Singapore: Palgrave MacMillan, pp. 791-807.
Carnegie P.J. (2016). Imagined communities, militancy and insecurity in Indonesia. In Carnegie, P.J.. V. T. King and Zawawi Ibrahim (eds.) Human Insecurities in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Springer, pp. 53-68.
Hamdi, S, P.J. Carnegie, and B. Smith (2015). The recovery of a non-violent identity for an Indonesian pesantren in an Age of Terror. Australian Journal of International Affairs, 69(6), pp.1-19.
Carnegie, P.J. (2010). The Road from Authoritarianism to Democratization in Indonesia. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
Carnegie, P.J. (2009). Democratization and decentralization in post-Soeharto Indonesia. Pacific Affairs, 81(4), pp. 15-25.