Assistant Professor, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences and Program Leader, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences
Dr Siti Mazidah Haji Mohamad is an Assistant Professor at Universiti Brunei Darussalam. She graduated from Durham University (PhD in Human Geography) in 2015. She is a geographer researching youth's mobilities, everyday socio-spatial practices, engagements and realities reflected through various new social media platforms. Her main research interest lies at the intersection of geographies of young people, geographies of digital media and popular culture, and geographies of religion. She has a special interest in affective labour/ practice and mobilities framework. Within this research area, she has studied: mediated Muslim cosmopolitanism; Bruneian youth self-disclosure on social media in the context of online privacy; influencers culture in the context of digital work and mobilities; micro-celebrities influence on Muslim women's hijab consumption; Muslims performance of religiosity on social media; and Brunei's young Muslims 'Generation M' expression of identity on Instagram and YouTube. She has recently published in Celebrity Studies (2019) and Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie (2020). Currently, She is leading a funded research on youth mobilities through institutionalised mobilities programmes.
As an educator, she applies transformative and affective pedagogy in her teaching, making use of youth learners' everyday lived experiences and emotions as valuable resources to encourage the co-creation of knowledge and learning. On this note, she aspires for highly relatable and affective teaching and learning.
At a personal level, she offers mentorship to Bruneian youth under the Youth Professional Network (YPN), a personal chat session for Universiti Brunei Darussalam (Geographical and Environmental Studies) students focusing on personal development, transferable skills (personal motivation, critical thinking, and research and analytical skills) to support students in their learning and personal development, and a long-term mentorship session to help her student to progress academically.
She is keen to supervise MA/PhD projects that relate to youth mobilities, youth development, youth lifestyles, youth and new social media use, and youth and new forms of work and MA/PHD projects that employ qualitative research methodology (online and offline ethnography, interviews, focus group, online and offline observation, survey, and qualitative content analysis).
2006 BA Geography (Major Geography/Minor Anthropology). Universiti Brunei Darussalam.
(Junior Year Abroad Programme, Loughborough University, United Kingdom. 2004-2005)
2007 MSc Geographical Information Systems. Leeds University, United Kingdom.
2015 PhD Human Geography. Durham University, United Kingdom.
1) Spatialities and micro-geographies of young people on social mediascapes
- Young people's performance of religiosities
- Young people's creative work on social media
2) Celebrity Culture in Southeast Asia
- Muslim Micro-celebrities/Influencers cultures
- Hijabi celebrification and hijab consumption and practices
- Korean Wave/Hallyu 2.0 in Brunei Darussalam
3) Youth Mobilitiies and development
- Affective and Transformative Pedagogy for Youth Learners
- Youth learners' mobilities for education and self-development
- Youth 'mobilities' and affective labour on social media
Unfunded Research Projects for 2019/2020 - Completed
1) Affective Fashion Mobilities: Cultural Materialities Transactions in Social Mediascape.
2) From Hallyu A-List Celebrities to Hallyu 2.0 Influencers: Audience-Celebritiesâ€™ Affective Cultural Engagement on Social Mediascape in Brunei Darussalam.
3) Mobilities Aspirations and Everyday Lived Subjectivities of Young Bruneians Abroad/on Discovery Year.
Unfunded Research Projects for 2019/2020 - Ongoing/In-Preparation
1) Active Youth: Challenged, Empowered and Mobilised (NGOs and Social Enterprise). Ongoing
2) They are Just Bruneians: An Exploratory Study of Bruneian Youth in the Creative Industry. Ongoing
3) Self-leadership development and Future Ready Youth. Ongoing
4) Social Media, Risk Perception, and Risk Communication of COVID-19 in Brunei Darussalam. Submitted for FIC Block Grant and Ethics Approval.
5) Bruneians on Tik Tok, 2021
6) Young People's Religiosity (Brunei Context), 2021
1) Spatial Patterns of Development
2) Virtual Geographies, Space, and Culture
3) Trends in New Media: Principles and Practices
The field of international student mobilities remains a fertile ground for research as exemplified by the expansion of discourses on students mobilities by researchers within this field over the recent years (Yoon 2014, Cairns 2016, Doughty and Murray 2016, Yang 2018). The nuances in studentsâ€™ experiences of mobilities offer researchers with rich findings to (re)frame and understand todayâ€™s youth mobilities. Focusing on institutionalised mobilities programme within this field, universities worldwide have taken up the rein in actively shaping professional, skilled, culturally competent, and cosmopolitan students via educational curricula that embed short-term to longer-term mobilities. Universiti Brunei Darussalam, a young and emerging university in Southeast Asia, is not excluded from offering such mobility programmes. Via the universityâ€™s Discovery Year Programme, students are given the opportunity to gain locallyÂ¬ based or overseas experience outside of the university. While the interest in studentsâ€™ mobilities and the recognition of experiential learning initiatives continue to grow in size and intensities, future aspirations, mobilities aspirations and mobilities decision-making by the students themselves within an institutionalised mobilities programme remain understudied especially in the context of Southeast Asian students mobilities, as argued forcefully by Ortega (2018) and Phan (2018). Given these gaps in the existing literature in general and in the context of Bruneian students mobilities in particular, focusing on Bruneian students on Discovery Year (SEP, COP, Internship, and Incubation), this project seeks to investigate three interlinked aspects of their mobilities: 1) their future aspirations and life course planning; and 2) their mobility decisions with regards to their Discovery Year; and 3) whether the institutionâ€™s Discovery year structure is enabling students to realise their aspirations. The project aims to capture the nuances in Bruneian students Discovery Year mobilities by exploring the complex interplay between their mobilities aspirations, mobility decision-making that are framed as a reflexive process throughout their life at the university, and their reflection and experiences of the Discovery Year contextualised within the local and global contexts and to assess the relevance of UBDâ€™s Discovery Year structure in the forms of studentsâ€™ placement, activities, and assessments in supporting students to realise their aspirations. The proposed research is operationally divided into two interconnected parts. This is designed in such a way that each operational part can act as a stand-alone research and at the same time conceptually and empirically connected. Research data for Part 1 (Students) are to be elicited by a pre-Discovery Year interview, a post-Discovery Year interview, and a reflective journal written while the programme is running. Research data for Part 2 (University members) are to be elicited by semi-structure interview. Ultimately, this research is hoped to offer insights into the studentsâ€™ (re)framing and understanding of mobilities, their reworking of aspirations and rethinking of adult future as an ongoing and reflexive activity in the context of todayâ€™s precarious condition locally and globally, and the possibility of restructuring the current GenNext curriculum to offer a more relevant mobilities programme suitable to the needs of the future students.
Tik Tok, a video-sharing social networking service, took the world by storm. With an existing high social media penetration, Brunei Darussalam has further witnessed the explosion in the number of social media users signing up to Tik Tok. Despite being lauded as a global viral phenomenon and the growing (and sudden) interest in this social media platform locally, there has been a lack of research conducted on Bruneians Tik Tok use. Hence, this research aims to understand the reasons behind this growing interest and capture the nuances and complexities in Tik Tokers' use and experience in the country. It seeks to unpack the different layers of social processes and practices happening via the app's everyday use. It investigates social connectivity, identity formation and performativity at both the individual and societal levels, and everyday conflicts and negotiation processes manifested via different social practices, including the creative sharing of music videos, social connectivity, self-performativity, micro-influencing, and advocating social justice and grassroots activism. This research will provide researchers and relevant stakeholders with the current local Tik Tok use and engagements and the social practices that are locally contextualised, which is hoped to springboard further research on Tik Tok in Brunei Darussalam.
Google Scholar Citations
Google Scholar h-index
Published Journal Papers, Book Chapters, and Thesis
1. Mohamad, S. M & Abdul Ghafar, N. F. (In-Press, 2021) ‘#artcovidbn on Instagram: Capturing COVID-19’s New Normal via Creative Artwork’. In Brunn, S., & Gilbreath, D, COVID-19 and An Emerging World of Ad-Hoc Geographies.
2. Mohamad, S. M. (2021) Micro-celebrities Practices in Muslim-majority States in Southeast Asia. Popular Communication. The International Journal of Media and Culture. DOI: 10.1080/15405702.2021.1913492. (Special Issue - Global Politics of Celebrity).
3. Mohamad, S. M. (In-Press, 2021) ‘ Hallyu 2.0 in Brunei Darussalam: Audience Affective Engagement with Korean Culture on Social Mediascape’. The Korean Wave and Islamic Southeast Asia. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
4. Abdul Hai, Julay and Mohamad, S. M (Forthcoming) 'Culture of Volunteerism: An Overview of Youth Participation in Youth-led NGOs and Youth-led Platforms in Brunei'. Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Brunei.
5. Ullah AKM Ahsan, Hassan NH, Mohamad SMH & Chattoraj D. (Forthcoming, 2021) Privileged migrants & their sense of belonging: Insider or Outsider? Asian Journal of Social Sciences.
6. Islam, S. N. and Siti Mazidah, H.M. (Forthcoming, 2021). The Geography of Brunei Darussalam. In: International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development, pp 1-20.
7. Nurzihan Hassim and Siti Mazidah Mohamad. (2020) 'Hail Hijabis: Celebrification of Influencers by Postmodern Malay-Muslim Women in Malaysia'. In Effecting Gender and Sexuality Justice in Asia: Finding Resolutions through Conflicts. Springer. Singapore. DOI: 10.1007/978-981-15-8916-4
8. Siti Mazidah Mohamad (2020). 'An Overview of Bruneian Creatives' Affective Work and Labour on Social Media'. Southeast Asian Media Studies. 2 (1), 54-84. https://ejournals.ph/article.php?id=15222
9. Siti Mazidah Mohamad (2020) 'Creative Production of 'COVID-19 Social Distancing' Narratives on Social Media. Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie. Special Issue on The Geography of the COVID-19 Pandemic. 111(3). 347-359. https://doi.org/10.1111/TESG.12430
10. A.K.M. Ahsan Ullah, Noor Hasharina Hassan, Siti Mazidah Mohamad, and Diotima Chattoraj (2020) 'Migration and Security: Implications for Minority migrant groups'. India Quarterly. https://doi.org/10.1177/0974928419901199.
11. Mohamad, S. M. (2019). From Hallyu A-List Celebrities to Hallyu 2.0 Influencers: Audience-Celebritiesâ€™ Affective Cultural Engagement on Social Mediascape in Brunei Darussalam. Korean Wave, Gender and Trans-cultural Community, Seoul, South Korea, Research Institute of Asian Women (RIAW).
12. Siti Mazidah Mohamad and Nurzihan Hassim (2019). Hijabi Celebrification and Hijab Consumption in Brunei and Malaysia. Celebrity Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/19392397.2019.1677164
13. A.K.M. Ahsan Ullah, Siti Mazidah Mohamad, Noor Hasharina Hassan, Diotima Chattoraj, (2019) "Global skills deficiency: perspectives of skill mobility in Southeast Asian countries", Asian Education and Development Studies. https://doi.org/10.1108/AEDS-12-2018-0185
14. Siti Mazidah, Haji Mohamad (2019) Self Disclosure on Social Media in Brunei Darussalam. In Caballero-Anthony, M. & Sembiring, M (Eds.), Resilience in the Face of Disruptions (pp.46-56). RSiS Monograph, 34, Singapore: S.Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University. Available at: https://www.rsis.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/MN34_190219_Resilience-in-the-Face-of-Disruptions.pdf
15. Shafi Noor Islam, Siti Mazidah Haji Mohamad, Abul Kalam Azad (2019) Acacia Spp.: Invasive Trees Along the Brunei Coast, Borneo. In: Makowski C., Finkl C. (eds) Impacts of Invasive Species on Coastal Environments. Coastal Research Library, vol 29. Springer, Cham (Chapter 14. Pp 455-476).
First Online - 25 July 2018. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-91382-7_14
16. Siti Mazidah, Mohamad (2019) Everyday Lived Islam: Malaysian Muslim Womenâ€™s Performance of Religiosity Online. Journal for Islamic Studies. 37 (1), 74-100. Available from: https://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC-18444c9461.
Final Draft version: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333555141_Everyday_Lived_Islam_Malaysian_Muslim_Women's_Performance_of_Religiosity_Online
17. Siti Mazidah, Haji Mohamad (2018) Hijab di Brunei Darussalam: Satu Kajian Konteks dan Amalan. Rampak Serantau. Bil. 25. Halaman 108-124. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Negara Brunei Darussalam. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326976925_Hijab_di_Brunei_Darussalam_Satu_Kajian_Konteks_dan_Amalan
18. Siti Mazidah Haji Mohamad (2018). The Performance of Religiosity on Social Media: Three Future Research Directions. IAS Working Paper. 39. Available at: http://ias.ubd.edu.bn/assets/Files/WORKING.PAPER.SERIES.39.pdf
19. Siti Mazidah Haji Mohamad (2017). Performance of Religiosity on a ˜Techno-Religious" Space. Advanced Science Letters. Vol. 23. Issue 5.
Final Draft Version: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318711340_Performance_of_Religiosity_on_a_'Techno-Religious'_Space
20. Crang, M. & Haji Mohamad, Siti Mazidah (2016). Researching virtual communities. In: Clifford, N., Cope, M., French, S. & Gillespie, T. Key Methods in Geography. London. Sage.
21. Siti Mazidah Haji Mohamad (2014). Rooted Muslim Cosmopolitanism: Malay Malaysian Students Cultivating and Performing Cosmopolitan Self on Facebook. PhD Thesis, University of Durham. http://fass.ubd.edu.bn/staff/docs/SM/phd-thesis.pdf
22. Shafi Noor Islam and Siti Mazidah Haji Mohamad (Forthcoming) Brunei Profile. The Belt and Road Book Chapter Project.
Siti Mazidah Mohamad and Nurzihan Hassim (2019). Hijabi Celebrification and Hijab Consumption in Brunei and Malaysia. Celebrity Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/19392397.2019.1677164
Mohamad, Siti Mazidah (2021) Micro-celebrities Practices in Muslim-majority States in Southeast Asia. Popular Communication. The International Journal of Media and Culture. DOI: 10.1080/15405702.2021.1913492.
Competitive Research Grant (CRG)
Title: Miscarriage and Still Birth: Bruneian Women Pregnancy Loss Experiences, Coping Strategies and Supporting Role of Health Care Professionals.
Funding amount: BND 13,925
FIC Block Funding (Ongoing Research)
Title: Social Media, Risk Perception, and Risk Communication of COVID-19 in Brunei Darussalam.
Funding amount: - Funding applied in March 2020. Awaiting funding application result.
Ethics approval received - 6th June 2020
FIC Block Funding (Ongoing Research)
Title: Bruneian Students on Discovery Year: Mobilities Aspirations, Mobilities Decision-Making and Life Course Planning
Funding amount: BND 14, 515
Title: Visible and Influential: Muslim Bruneian Youthsâ€™ use of Instagram for Self-Branding & Identity Expression
Funding amount: BND 8,315
Title: Skill Mobility from ASEAN Countries: A Cost Benefit Analysis
Funding amount: BND 30, 502
Recent Conference Presentations
1. 'Mobile Youth: Realising Aspirations and Life Strategies via Self-Branding Practice'. Journal of Youth Studies Conference. Newcastle University, Australia. December 2019
2. 'From Hallyu A-List Celebrities to Hallyu 2.0 Influencers: Audience-Celebrities' Affective Cultural Engagement on Social Mediascape in Brunei Darussalam'. Research Institute of Asian Women Conference. Sookmyung University, Seoul, South Korea, November 2019.
3. 'Active and Empowered Youth: Bruneians in Entrepreneurship and the Creative Industry'. Commonwealth Youth Senior Officials Meeting. Brunei. August 2019
4. 'Affective Fashion Mobilities: Cultural Materialities Transactions on Social Mediascape'. UBD-CUHK Creative Industry Symposium. Brunei, April 2019
5. 'Can ASEAN Afford Skill Mobility? The perspective of Skill Mobility in Southeast Asia'. Non-Traditional Securities Asia Consortium Annual Conference. Singapore, March 2019
6. 'Mobile Youth: Self Branding and Self-Promotion on Instagram'. Digital Transactions in Asia. Manila, October 2018
7. 'Self-Disclosure in Brunei Darussalam'. Non-Traditional Securities Asia Consortium Annual Conference. Singapore, March 2018
8. 'Rooted Cosmopolitanism: A Key to Southeast Asia' Unity in Diversity?. SEASIA 2017 Conference. Bangkok, December 2017
9. 'Performance of Religiosity by Young People on Social Media - New Agenda for Geographies of Religion'. The 2017 Annual International Conference (RGS-IBG). London, August 2017
Upcoming Conference/Workshop 2020
1. 'Bruneian Students on Discovery Year: Reworking of Mobilities Aspirations and Mobilities Decision-Making'.
Mobility and education in Asia: an interdisciplinary discussion?
Asian Studies Association of Australia conference, 6-9 July 2020, Melbourne, Australia (Abstract Submitted October 2019).
2. ''I'm a Youth Geographer who studies Youth Mobilities: Finding an Academic Identity'
Royal Geographical Society-IBG (RGS-IBG) Annual Conference 1st -4th September 2020, London, United Kingdom (Abstract Submitted January 2020).
Accepted. Postponed to September 2021.
Offers consultancy on young people's use of new social media, youth's social and economic mobilities, youth empowerment, and youth development.
1. Command & Staff Course (CSC11), Graduate Diploma of Defence and Security. 2021
- Lecturer. Research Methodology (Qualitative).
2. Collaboration with Ministry of Education (MOE), Brunei Darussalam 2020.
- Strategic Foresight TaskForce Member - Social Aspect.
3. Research collaboration with Ministry of Health (MOH), Brunei Darussalam
- Social Media, Risk Perception, and Risk Communication of COVID-19 in Brunei Darussalam.
- Content Analysis of Talian 148 and Public's concerns.
4. Invitation to Review Journal Manuscripts / Journal Reviewer
- SEARCH Journal of Media and Communication Research, Taylors' University, Malaysia (Scopus-indexed) - 2018 to Present.
- Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie (TESG) for a Special Issue on The Geography of the Corona Virus (Scopus-indexed) - 2020.
- Asian Women, Sookmyung Women's University (Scopus-Indexed) - 2020
- Professional Geographer (Scopus-Indexed) - 2020
- Malaysian Journal of Media Studies (MJMS) - 2020 to Present
- Sociological Forum (Scopus-Indexed) - 2020
5. Unfunded research collaboration with Dr. Nurzihan Hassim (Taylors' University, Malaysia) 2017-2019.
Research title: Hijabi Celebrification on Instagram and Hijab Consumption in Brunei and Malaysia
6. Mentor for Young Professional Network (YPN), a network to nurture personal and professional growth of young professionals in Brunei Darussalam.
Mentorship Focus Areas: Personal development, transferable skills (personal motivation, critical thinking, and research and analytical skills).
Instagram: @ypn.bn. Link: https://www.instagram.com/p/BziGyv6BXkU/?utm_source=ig_web_copy_link
7. Workshop participant. National Youth Congress 2019. Brunei Darussalam. Organised by Ministry of Culture, Youth, and Sports.
The National Youth Congress (NYC) is a programme organised by the Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports and is run by the Youth and Sports Department. It was a platform for youth to share their opinions and concerns in a structured manner, contribute ideas, and together with policy makers to propose solution to the challenges of youth development towards achieving Vision 2035. The programme focused on 3 main concerns: Entrepreneurship, Future Ready Youth, and Youth Participation.
8. Participant. Brunei Young Leaders Convention 2019. Brunei Darussalam.
The Brunei Young Leaders Convention (BYLC) is a platform for youths in Brunei Darussalam to gather and it aims to mobilise youth to have a sense of belonging and to play an active role in achieving Bruneiâ€™s Vision 2035.
9. One of the panellists for the YSEALI 2019 Civic Engagement Panel Discussion
Title: â€œLet's Talk Media Literacy: What it is in Brunei's Context'
Themes: Media Literacy, Social Media, Awareness, Youth
Date: 13th August 2019.
10. 27th Executive Development Programme for Middle Management Officers (EDPMMO) 2019 - Policy Paper Supervisor and Examiner.
11. 27th Executive Development Programme for Senior Government Officers (EDPSGO) 2019 - Policy Examiner.
12. Facilitator. Meet and Greet Session between the Honourable Mejar General (R) Dato Paduka Seri Haji Aminuddin Ihsan bin Pehin Orang Kaya Saiful Mulok Dato Seri Paduka Haji Abidin, the Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports, Brunei Darussalam, Her Excellency Grace Fu, the Minister of Culture, Community and Youth, the Republic of Singapore and Young Leaders from Brunei and Singapore.
Programme: Singapore Brunei Young Leadership Exchange Programme 2019 (SBYLEP 2019)
Theme: " Future Ready Youth"
Date: 4th October 2019.
13. One of the panellists for the Brunei Chevening Youth Forum (BCYF) 2020
Theme: â€œSolution Driven Generation: A Day of Action Forum on Youth Participation, Volunteerism & Leadership to National Developmentâ€
Session: â€œBruneian Youth as Future Ready Agents of Changeâ€
Discussion on the current state of readiness of Bruneian youth as future ready agents of change and how we can nurture a conducive ecosystem for young people to thrive led by youth from youth from various backgrounds, fields and expertise.
Date: 18th January 2020.
14. Collaboration with the International Institute of Knowledge Management (TIIKM).
- World's Women Conference Studies 2020. Abstract Reviewer.
1. Initiated and Co-convener of FASS Korean Studies Research Group. 2020 - Present.
Given the current interests in Korean culture in the country, we hope to further engage with this phenomenon within the academic context and to develop the current scholarly engagements amongst the local academics in this research area.
2. 'Let's Chat with Dr. M' - A personal initiative to support students in their learning and personal development. It is a 1-hour chat session open only to Geographical and Environmental Studies students for the time being. The chat session covers 3 focus areas: coping with university life, personal motivation, and personal development.
3. 'Academic Mentorship' - A personal initiative to support GED students' academic development. This mentorship focuses on developing students' academic writing and critical thinking. This mentorship will run from January 2020 up until the students' final year. It is open to Geographical and Environmental Studies students and only 3-5 students per intake are accepted.
4. 'Think Before You Post' - A personal initiative on online privacy and self-disclosure awareness.
5. Mentorship Session by Topic under Youth Professional Network (YPN).
Topic 1: 'Step by Step Guide to Conducting Research'
Date: 12th January 2020
Topic 2: 'Make Yourself Visible: Work and Labour on Social Media'
Specific focus: Rethinking of work and labour in Brunei; and Affective and Entrepreneurial Labour.
Date: 22nd September 2019
Topic 3: 'Congratulations! You're now a University Student. A guide to maximising your potential at University.
Date: 16th August 2020.
6. UBD Career Guide. August 2020 onwards.
7. Commonwealth Youth Senior Officials Meeting (Asia Region)
Paper Title: 'Active and Empowered Youth: Bruneians in Entrepreneurship and the Creative Industry'
Technical Discussion: Youth Employment and Entrepreneurship.
Date: 27th -29th August 2019.
Presentation downloadable from here: https://bit.ly/2L2MFWx
8. Administrative Experience at UBD
- Programme Leader, Geographical and Environmental Studies Programme (2016-2017)
- Deputy Dean (Academic), Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (2017-2018)
- Programme Leader, Geographical and Environmental Studies Programme (2020-2021)
- Acting Deputy Dean (Academic), Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (August- November 2020)
9. Faculty Advisor - 2017 S. Rajaratnam Endowment Youth Model (SRE-YMAC) ASEAN Conference. Singapore.
10. Representing UBD - 2015 The International Consortium of Universities for the Study of Biodiversity and the Environment or iCUBE Workshop, Seoul, South Korea.
11. Supervisor - 2014 JENESYS 2.0 Mass Media Batch 12. Shikoku and Toyko, Japan.
12. Public Presentation - 'GIS and Gender Studies: An Example of GIS Application for Research on Population Census'.
World GIS Day 2007 organised by Survey Department Ministry of Development. Brunei Darussalam. November 2007.
13. Public Presentation - 'Where am I, Where Am I Going?' Answer This with GIS'.
World GIS Day 2007 organised by Survey Department, Ministry of Development. Brunei Darussalam. April 2008.