Dr Ishamina Athirah Muntassir (Gardiner)


Lecturer, Language Centre



PhD in Applied Linguistics (Universiti Brunei Darussalam, 2017)


Brunei English
Intelligibility in English as a Lingua Franca (ELF)
Phonetics & Phonology
Pronunciation teaching
Global Englishes
English Medium Instruction (EMI)


Student perspectives of EMI (English Medium Instruction) education in Brunei (LC English research project)

The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of EMI (English Medium Instruction) education through the bilingual education system in the country in an HE (higher education) institution by looking at student perspectives.

Applications Invited

Teachers' and learners' perceptions of classroom language learning tasks. (Funded project. SHBIE-LC collaboration)

The overarching purpose of this research is to aid in understanding the causes of failure and success in language teaching classrooms. While most research in this area focuses on teacher action, teacher beliefs, methods, syllabus, materials development etc., The aim of this research is to investigate how school-aged learners see the language classroom and, by reference to similar data gathered from teachers, investigate the extent to which there may be a difference in perceptions of purpose, value/usefulness and expectations. The research is situated within phenomenology, specifically linked to Personal Construct Theory, and utilizes repertory grids as a means of gathering data and stimulating learner and teacher expression of how they see the classroom. This initial study, intended as a pilot for larger, broader research plans, focuses on secondary school learners in Brunei and their teachers.

Applications Invited

The pronunciation of the indigenous languages of Brunei Darussalam

The aim of this project is to collect a recording of the Angin Utara ('North Wind and the Sun') text read in each of these indigenous languages and then complete a phonological analysis of the passage. The seven indigenous languages that are officially recognised in Brunei Darussalam are Malay, Kedayan, Dusun, Bisaya, Tutong, Belait, and Murut. This project enables us to provide a description of the pronunciation of these languages which can help in the preservation of some of these languages.

Applications Invited

Scopus Publications


Google Scholar Citations


Google Scholar h-index


Google Scholar i10-index

Scopus Publications

  • Brunei Malay
    David Deterding and Ishamina Athirah
    Journal of the International Phonetic Association, ISSN: 00251003, eISSN: 14753502, Pages: 99-108, Published: 1 April 2017
    Cambridge University Press (CUP)

  • New pronunciation en route to world Englishes
    O. Kang, Ron I. Thomson and John M. Murphy
    The Routledge Handbook of Contemporary English Pronunciation, Pages: 218-231, Published: 1 January 2017

  • The role of fast speech in misunderstandings in Brunei English
    Ishamina Athirah
    The Use and Status of Language in Brunei Darussalam: A Kingdom of Unexpected Linguistic Diversity, Pages: 41-56, Published: 1 January 2016
    Springer Singapore


Gardiner, I. A., & Deterding, D. (2020). The features of Asian Englishes: Phonology. In K. Bolton, W. Botha, & A. Kirkpatrick (Eds.), The Handbook of Asian Englishes (pp. 189–207). Wiley-Blackwell.
Gardiner, I. A. (2019). Intelligibility of an L2 variety in ELF interactions: Brunei English and vowel pronunciation. Journal of Second Language Pronunciation, 5(2), 247-268. https://doi.org/10.1075/jslp.17049.gar
Gardiner, I. A., Deterding, D., & Yabit Alas. (2019). The pronunciation of Dusun. South East Asia: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 19, 14-21.
Gardiner, I. A., & Deterding, D. (2019). Language selection and assessment in Brunei Darussalam. In F. Fang & H. P. Widodo (Eds.), Critical perspectives on Global Englishes in Asia: Language policy, curriculum, pedagogy and assessment (pp. 45-63). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. http://multilingual-matters.com/display.asp?K=9781788924092
Gardiner, I. A., Boye, S., Salleh, S. M., & Yusof, N. (2018). English teacher preparation in Brunei Darussalam: An overview of the Master of Teaching programme from multiple perspectives. In S. Zein & R. Stroupe (Eds.), English Language teacher preparation in Asia: Policy, research and practice (pp. 129–149). London: Routledge.
Deterding, D., & Gardiner, I. A. (2018). New pronunciation en route to world Englishes. In O. Kang, R. I. Thomson, & J. M. Murphy (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Contemporary English Pronunciation (pp. 218–231). London: Routledge.
Gardiner, I. A., & Deterding, D. (2017). Pronunciation and miscommunication in ELF interactions: an analysis of initial clusters. In J. Jenkins, W. Baker, & M. Dewey (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of English as a Lingua Franca (pp. 224-232). London: Routledge.
Ishamina, A., & Deterding, D. (2017). English-medium education in a university in Brunei Darussalam: Code-switching and intelligibility. In B. Fenton-Smith, P. Humphreys & I. Walkinshaw (Eds.), English medium instruction in higher education in Asia-Pacific: From policy to pedagogy (pp. 281–298). Dordrecht: Springer. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-51976-0_15
Deterding, D., & Ishamina, A. (2017). Brunei Malay. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 47(1), 99-108. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0025100316000189
Ishamina Athirah (2016). The role of fast speech in misunderstandings in Brunei English. In Noor Azam Haji-Othman, J. McLellan & D. Deterding (Eds.), The use and status of language in Brunei Darussalam: A kingdom of unexpected linguistic diversity (pp. 41–56). Singapore: Springer. DOI 10.1007/978-981-10-0853-5_5
Ishamina Athirah (2016). TH in misunderstandings in Brunei English, South East Asia: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 16, 1–7.
Ishamina Athirah (2015). Listener pronunciation in misunderstandings in international communication, South East Asia: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 15, 26–35.
Ishamina Athirah & Deterding, D. (2015). The role of noun phrases in misunderstandings in Brunei English in ELF settings. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, 4(2), 283–308. DOI: 10.1515/jelf-2015-0021.


Research project: Teachers' and learners' perceptions of classroom language learning tasks.
Principal researchers: Assoc. Prof. Dr Andrew Littlejohn (SHBIE), Dr Ishamina Athirah Muntassir Gardiner (LC), Dr Sarah Boye (LC)


Intensive English Language programmes

Industry, Institute, or Organisation Collaboration

APB, UiTM Kedah - LC, UBD Internationalisation Project (Feb 2020)
Joint international conference by APB, UiTM Kedah-LC, UBD: "i-InTeLec 2021" (International Innovation In Teaching & Learning And Language Education Conference) to be held in November 2021


Reviewer for International Journal of Applied Linguistics (Wiley) - 2018
Reviewer for Language Teaching Research (Sage) - 2020

Conducting research on:
- English in Brunei,
- description of and the intelligibility of Brunei English,
- the education system of Brunei with regards to dwibahasa (bilingual system) and EMI,
- issues on language assessment
- description of the languages of Brunei
- ELF (English as a Lingua Franca) in the Asian context
- the phonetics and phonology of Malay