Future Projects (51)

Low Wind Speed Turbine: Field Tests and Commercialization.

  • Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences
  • Contact:Dr Chee M Lim
  • Application invited for:Master


CAMES has developed technology for low wind speed turbine, and the project has reached the stage for field testing and commercialization. This project will fabricate 5kWp capacity turbines to be placed at strategic locations for field testing. The test data will be used for further product refinement. The project shall also study the commercialization potential of the turbines, and the aim is to prepare for a startup company. Joint supervision with Dr. S. Mathew

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Study of Sub-surface Road Structures.

  • Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences
  • Contact:Dr Chee M Lim
  • Application invited for:Master


The project involves the survey of road sub-surface conditions in Brunei. The project will involve signal processing, data analytics, and system integration of GPR system for rapid roads.

From Innovation To Commercialization of Perovskite Solar Cell.

  • Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences
  • Contact:Dr Chee M Lim
  • Application invited for:PhD


The main aim of this project is to study the production process of Pervoskite Solar Cell (PSC). As various PSC structures are available, a selected type of PSC will be optimized for production. The product specification is at least 16% power conversion efficiency with module dimension of at 16 x 16 cm2. Joint supervision with Dr. NTRN Kumara

Investigation of Hybrid Plasmonic Nanostructures for Water Purification and Nanophotonic Devices

  • Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences
  • Contact:Dr Yuan-Fong Chou Chau
  • Application invited for:Phd degree


Hybrid plasmonic nanostructures (HPNs) are a combination of structured metal and dielectric materials in the nanoscale. HPNs possess special optical and electrical effects which are applicable to the diverse applications on water purification and other nanophotonic devices, such as nanoantennas and bio-sensors. The water purification technology will compliment existing water treatment technologies where the HPNs based water purification technology is targeted for the treatment of industrial waste water containing organic compounds, metals, and micro-organisms. In this project, the investigated HPNs will be performed by using the simulation and experiment methods simultaneously.

Design of the nanoplasmonic metamaterials for applications on light manipulation and energy harvest

  • Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences
  • Contact:Dr Yuan-Fong Chou Chau
  • Application invited for:Phd degree


In this project, we will focus on the design and analysis of high throughput of nanoscale plasmonic metamaterial for light manipulation and energy harvesting. We will aim to promote the development of nanoplasmonic metamaterials for applications in light manipulation and energy harvest, such as plasmonic solar cell, plasmonic nanoantenna and highly sensitive plasmonic biosensors. For achieving this purpose, four research steps will be carried out base on our previous works: design, fabrication, measurement, and application. In addition, a numerical method by using the finite element method will be performed to simulate and design the tunable efficiency and nonlinear enhancement of electromagnetic resonances of various plasmonic metamaterials.

Investigation of a photonic crystal fiber based on surface plasmon resonance sensing

  • Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences
  • Contact:Dr Yuan-Fong Chou Chau
  • Application invited for:Ms degree


A photonic crystal fiber based on surface plasmon resonance (PCF-SPR) sensing of a gold layer or gold nanoparticles will be investigated. The sensor has two advantages: polarization independence and less noble metal consumption. The coupling characteristics and sensing performance of the sensor are performed by using by the finite-element method (FEM) based on Maxwell's equations. The characteristics of birefringer, foundmantal modes and optical loss spectrum of the PCF-SPR sensor will be discussed in detail in this project.

Functionalized Zeolites Catalyst for the Production of Valuable Chemical Feedstock from Natural Gas in Brunei

  • Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences
  • Contact:Dr Abdul Hanif Mahadi
  • Application invited for:Masters PhD


The aim of this project is to synthesize functionalized zeolites catalyst for methane activation reaction. The activation of methane enables the direct conversion of methane (a major component of natural gas) into higher monetary value chemicals such as alcohols, syngas, alkenes, alkynes and aromatics, a reaction regarded as the “holy grail” in the chemical industry. Zeolite comprises of a crystalline framework of aluminosilicates and because of its high porosity and reactive acidic sites, zeolites has shown to have exceptional performance as catalyst in various reactions in the chemical industry. The active sites can be chemically modified to enhance its catalytic performance, thus to functionalise the catalyst. The world market demand for zeolites catalyst is USD20 billion in and it is projected to grow to USD24 billion by 2018.

Morphologies of Metal Oxides as PGM Nanoparticles Support for Heterogeneous Catalytic Reactions

  • Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences
  • Contact:Dr Abdul Hanif Mahadi
  • Application invited for:Masters PhD


Heterogeneous catalysis technology is the key for green energy. It is involved in making petrochemical processes more efficient and also the development of renewable energy such as water splitting and solar photovoltaic cells. Metal oxides are usually used as materials for heterogeneous catalysis. Since most of the catalytic reactions occurs on the surface, surface chemistry and optimisation is utmost important. One method to optimise the surfaces of the metal oxide catalyst is by specifying its exposed facets, and this can be achieved by tuning the morphology of the metal oxides. However, this method of optimisation is not feasible for the chemical industry due to the complication and high cost of synthesising these morphology-controlled oxide catalysts. This project aims to develop facile and cost effective synthesis methods, so the catalysed chemical processes can be more efficient and economical.

Thermochromic glazing coatings

  • Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences
  • Contact:Dr Voo Nyuk Yoong
  • Application invited for:MSc/PhD in Energy Studies MSc/PhD in Material Sciences


The aim of this research project is to study the thermochromic materials, for glazing, whereby the change in optical property is revisable with temperature. This study mainly investigate the transition temperature of various transition metal oxides, dopants and deposition technologies in order to obtain the closest transition temperature to room temperature. This project will mainly be of experimental nature. (Available for 1 MSc student and 1 PhD student)

DFT Studies on the electronic structures of natural dye for dye-sensitized solar cells

  • Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences
  • Contact:Dr Voo Nyuk Yoong
  • Application invited for:MSc in Energy Studies


In this research project, the students will be studied the efficiency of the natural dyes using the density functional theory. The ground-state, electronic structures and absorption spectra of these dyes will be studied. (Available for 1 MSc student)

Graphene membrane for desalination of water

  • Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences
  • Contact:Dr Voo Nyuk Yoong
  • Application invited for:MSc/PhD in Material Sciences


Sea water is the major source of water on Earth. However, high concentration of salinity in the sea water makes it unsuitable for domestic usages. We aim to design graphene nanopores membrane for filtration and desalination of sea water. This research consists of studying the pore sizes and pressure of the graphene sheets for the salt rejection ability by molecular dynamics. After optimised the salt rejection performance, the optimsed design of the graphene with nanopores will be fabricated. Then, characterizations will be performed.

Research, business development and demonstration of anti-corrosion coatings for maritime applications

  • Centre for Advanced Material and Energy Sciences
  • Contact:Dr Ren Chong Lim
  • Application invited for:PhD and Master in Material Science by Research


This is a research, business development and demonstration (R&BDD) project in collaboration with the Centre of Science and Technology Research and Development, Ministry of Defence (CSTRAD). The product-development aspect of the project will take place at UBD-CAMES using coating technologies previously acquired and developed under the UBD-BEBD-Pixela BRISc project which ended in July 2016. Business development will be conducted in collaboration with supply-chain management experts from UBD School of Business and Economics (UBD-SBE). Finally, the products developed will be demonstrated on maritime assets belonging to the Royal Brunei Navy and Building Works Department under the Ministry of Defence, Brunei.

Metal oxide nanoparticle thin film gas sensor to detect pollutant gases


Prevention of unforeseen and sudden accidents within our immediate environment as a result of gaseous pollutants and /or gas cylinder leakage make it necessary for researchers and industrialist across the world to provide effective means for present and future prevention through fabrication of gas sensors. Semiconductor metal oxide gas sensors have been proven to be the most efficient gas sensors exploited so for due to a number of reasons such as simplicity in their fabrication and cost effective.

Gas sensor modeling and simulation


Theoretical study always help to understand the more sciences. This modelling and simulation study is to explore the behavior of pristine and different doped metal oxide clusters in the presence of gas molecules. The results may help to understand the mechanism of sensitivity and reactivity improvements in the gas sensors which will be useful for the experimental works. Energy calculations, geometry optimizations, density of states (DOS), and natural bond orbital analyses are some of selected simulation works.

Trainee Teachers' Perceptions of School-Based Assessment in Malaysia: An Exploratory Study.

  • Centre for Lifelong Learning
  • Contact:Mark Smith
  • Application invited for:


School-based assessment, while quite established in many Western countries, is still relatively new in the Asian education context. Consequently, operational problems such as large class sizes, lack of teacher skills and inadequate computer management systems mean that many teachers are still focused on more traditional methods of assessment. This paper attempts to address this apparent reluctance by teachers to embrace school-based assessment through an exploratory research study on 25 first year bachelor of education students from a Malaysian Institute of Teacher Education. Findings showed that the majority of students were more positive towards a student-centred and formative learning approach after the students had experienced a teaching unit based on formative assessment principles. Results may serve as a useful starting point for researchers interested in more classroom-based explorations of school-based assessment in Asia.

English as medium of instruction in Southeast Asian Higher Education Institutions


This is a collaborative project led by Prof Roger Barnard, Waikato University and Zuwati Hashim, Universiti Malaya, that investigates the status, challenges and directions of the use of English as a medium of instruction in various Southeast Asian nations. The project will lead to a publication of a volume by Taylor & Francis.

Use of English in the professional world in China: A comparative perspective with other EFL/ESL nations

  • Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences
  • Contact:Dr Paul Deyuan He
  • Application invited for:one potential PhD candidate


The present project intends to explore the use of English in the professional world in China. In contrast to the use of English in Brunei, one of the dominant themes of the literature on language in China is the belief that English, particularly its spoken form, plays a limited role in the lives of the country’s mainly Chinese-speaking population. For this reason, it is argued, there is no societal basis for the development of Chinese English. One of the limitations of this argument is that it is based on expert opinion rather than empirical evidence about the nature and extent of English use in the lives of China’s educated people. This project aims to examine the results of a survey involving about 2,500 English users in China which seeks to generate much-needed baseline data about patterns of language choice and use in one centrally important yet overlooked domain: the professional workplace. Its findings may indicate the importance of English use in the workplace of China’s professionals, and in-depth analysis and comparison of the findings will be conducted in relation to English use in other EFL/ESL nations, including Brunei, as reported in previous literature. The project will hopefully provide significant implications for English education in China as well as other EFL/ESL nations.

Foreign language learning anxiety in China: Theories and applications in English language teaching

  • Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences
  • Contact:Dr Paul Deyuan He
  • Application invited for:one potential PhD candidate


With more than 50 years’ development, the study on foreign language learning anxiety (FLLA) still remains a popular research topic among scholars in western countries. Though at its initial stage of development in China, FLLA has caught increasing attention from Chinese researchers in recent years, and it has been frequently discussed in journal and newspaper articles. FLLA is believed to be one important reason for students’ “dumb English”. Considering the paucity of monographs on FLLA in China, this project attempts to bridge the gap. The project reviews and discusses previous literature and current status and major issues centering on FLLA worldwide, and explores FLLA in China making use of innovative triangulated research methodology combining both quantitative and qualitative methods, namely, questionnaire surveys, focused interviews, and classroom observations. The project also highlights the significance and implications of the conclusions drawn, and then envisions the future of FLLA research globally with a particular focus on China. Readers can derive from this project the latest developments and issues concerning FLLA, the reasons leading to FLLA and the verified effective strategies alleviating such anxiety, which will be of great interest and benefit to them.

Edutourism: An economic contribution of higher education.

  • Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences
  • Contact:Mayyer Ling
  • Application invited for:


Highest education institutions have the potential in generating revenues for the state with the ever-growing demand of knowledge-based societies globally. Graduate studies, especially in unique research areas such as Islamic-studies, Biodiversity and, Language and Cultural studies are some key attractions offered and found in the ASEAN region. To what extent are higher institutions gauging and promoting these research and learning opportunities for their respective benefits and revenue generation through their virtual presence in New Media?

Authorial ownership: Key to accountability and reliability of future leaders

  • Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences
  • Contact:Mayyer Ling
  • Application invited for:


The most commonly administered task in higher institutions is academic writing tasks - either in the form of essays, reports, and even storyboards and treatments - as is the case for Media Studies undergraduates. However, there is often a lack of enthusiasm in the production of the daunting task as there seems to be a lack of perceived relevance between one's current academic expectation and future professional skills. This project attempts to unravel the notion of authorial ownership in reducing the gap between the academic (written) tasks and future professional needs of students.

Reviewing the Brunei Teachers’ Standards (BTS): Local ESL Teachers as a Resource in Policy-making

  • Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences
  • Contact:Mayyer Ling
  • Application invited for:


This study primarily function to identify the gap between BTS and best practices employed by local teachers in the ESL classroom. The implication for the study is three-fold; first, this paper intends to recommend economically-justifiable sources of input for policy-making, as opposed to the current heavy-reliance on foreign consultants. Second, this paper also intends to justify the need for participation of local teachers who are the frontrunners for the Ministry of Education in providing accurate, reliable and culturally appropriate BTS reformation. Third, the study also aims to improvise a teachers’ standard framework that is catered to ESL, culturally-specific to the Bruneian context, with input from local teachers, which could help in future ESL teacher preparation programmes nationwide. Co-author: Dr Rinni Marliyana Binti Haji Amran

Miscarriage and Still Birth: Bruneian Women’s Pregnancy Loss Experiences, Coping Strategies and Health Care Professionals' Supporting Roles.


This research focuses on Bruneian women with child loss experiences (miscarriage or still birth) and the support offered by their family, friends, and nurses/midwives during/after their pregnancy termination process. It is operationally divided into two parts. Part one focuses on this group of women’s experiences of child loss in different stages of pregnancy. Part two considers the experiences of the health care professionals in providing support to this group of women. Health care professionals are part of these women’s lives as they are at the front line of the provision of care and support in the forms of medical and healthcare intervention. This research is expected to provide a deeper comprehension of Bruneian socio-cultural and religious contexts covering women’s child loss experiences. We also expect to get baseline data on provision of care for this group of women by health care professionals to assist in improving the quality of services offered by them.

A look into Brunei’s Young Muslims ‘Generation M’ Expression of Identity on Instagram.


Most young people, Bruneians included, are taking to online sites to express their individualities and narrating their selves via their everyday photo and video uploads. In the country, Instagram is seemingly use actively as a space and/or as a tool to express one’s self and identity. In a short span of time, we witness distinct and innovative social practices such as the growth of Bruneians’ contemporary Muslim fashions, fed by these young people’s compulsion to share day to day activities on their social network sites. Just by observing young Bruneians online sharing on their Instagram profiles, it provides us a window into the society’s contemporary and dynamic socio-cultural and religious fabrics. This surge of individualised sharing (such as photo with hashtag outfit of the day, throwbacks and Instagram stories) by young Bruneians led the author to question the individual’s own interpretation of their own sharing practices, for instance, what they are trying to portray (or portraying) via their Instagram upload, and whether they are expecting their followers to be conscious of this specific image, self, and identity they are attempting to depict. Using images from Bruneians Instagram uploads and personal conversations with a few young Bruneians, the author aims to reveal the individual/distinct identities this group of young people attempts to portray via and on their Instagram profile – the images of vibrant, youthful, energetic, trendy, well-versed and cosmopolitan Muslim individuals – while being cognisant of the danger of generalising Muslim identities and narratives. Key words: Bruneians, youth, Muslim, Instagram, identity, Generation M

Hijabi Celebrification on Instagram: An Analysis of Cultural Consumption in Brunei and Malaysia.


Mundane use of social media sites intensified the creation of a new breed of celebrities who are young and ordinary and are actively using social media to connect with wider audience. This transformation, known as “celebrification”, has received considerable attention by scholars and general public due to its pertinence to commodification and branding. This paper aims to analyse the influence of celebrification upon women’s consumption with a specific focus on hijab, or the act of veiling. In Brunei and Malaysia, the hijab hybridity of hijabistas or hijabsters emerged through the intersectionality of culture, religion and consumption as the growth of luxury hijab retail brands heightened the veil as a statute of class. We observed that consumption of hijab brands in both Muslim-majority countries in Southeast Asia is significantly tied to the image constructed by the brand itself and its and brand ambassadors. In addition, we also observed that celebrities have impacted the desire to veil among Malay-Muslim women through “social media influencer” roles. For instance, the founder of hijab brand Duckscarves, Vivy Yusof, uses her social media (particularly Instagram) to promote the label through her consistent blogging and Instagram uploads. In doing so, she gained celebrity status not only in Malaysia but also other countries within Southeast Asia where she cemented the brand credibility of Duckscarves and her multi-label fashion company, Fashion Valet. Using qualitative content analysis and visual analysis of Vivy Yusof, The Duck Group / Duckscarves, and selected micro-celebrities, this paper examines the extent of influence of the aforementioned celebrification on women’s hijab practices and consumption, with a particular focus on Brunei and Malaysia. We reflexively established similarities and differences between the two nations that are predisposed to the Islamic cosmopolitanism in their social media use. Finally, we discuss the theoretical aspects of the phenomena by correlating the narratives of photos and videos with the discourse of Instagram users that revealed shared voices, a sense of belonging and cultural identities.

Emerging Environmental Awareness in 20th-Century Accounts of Flight


This project examines twentieth-century author-aviators' flight accounts as sources of an environmentalist discourse that see relations between the human, technology, and nature as synergetic and collaborative rather than hierarchical. These author-aviators were significantly aware of how the airplane, the aviator, and the surrounding environment necessarily sustain each others' functions in order to produce flight. The aviator – traditionally seen as superior to the machine and the environment – thus becomes re-positioned as a collaborator.

Fast Food as a Transnational Space: Filipino Transnationalism and Jollibee in Brunei Darussalam


A phenomenal business success story, Jollibee has become an iconic ‘Filipino’ brand and one of Asia’s most admired companies. It has stood out for beating McDonald’s in its own game in the Philippines, as well as in Brunei where Jollibee is the most dominant fast food chain. One of the unintended offshoots of Jollibee’s success was that it has become a marker or vector of (trans)national identity and pride among overseas Filipinos in countries where they have established branches. Reports had it of very long lines of expectant customers greeting the opening of branches, say, in Queens in New York in 2009, Hawaii in 2010, Houston in 2013, Singapore in 2013 and Chicago and Winnipeg in 2016. It puzzles many observers. In Brunei, there is no frenetic reactions to Jollibee, but nevertheless Filipinos in Brunei appear to be silently proud of its Philippine origin. Long domesticated as part of the social landscape, Jollibee has long been accepted by locals and it enhances or validates even more the sense of pride Filipinos feel towards Jollibee. Along with the churches, Philippine embassy, TFC (The Filipino Channel) and Filipino gatherings at home, restaurants, and parks, Jollibee is among the key symbols and places where Filipino trans-local or transnational identities are affirmed or reinforced, and passed on to the younger generations. Using data from interviews, focus group discussions, photo/video elicitation and participant observation, this paper seeks to examine the ways and the extent to which Jollibee plays a role in the transnational identity formation among adult Filipinos in Brunei as well as their children. It also aims to explore possible explanations for the apparently striking difference between the intensity of Filipino responses to Jollibee in Brunei compared with those in places like Singapore and the United States.

Joseph Ralston Hayden as Exemplar of Power-Knowledge?”


This research project seeks to examine the interplay between the ‘political’ life and academic persona of Joseph Ralston Hayden to determine whether or not, in what ways if if did, and to what extent it exemplified the complex relationship between knowledge and power. Being a highly regarded expert of the Philippine affairs, an accomplished Professor of Political Science at University of Michigan, the Vice Governor of the Philippines in the 1930s and an adviser to Douglas MacArthur during the Second World War, Joseph Ralston Hayden seemed to personify the organic ties between knowledge and power, between expertise and political interests. He seemed to represent many scholars, like those identified by Robin Winks in his book Cloak and Gown (1987), who have worked for or with the powers-that-be, such as the Office of Secret Service (OSS) or the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). By teasing out the details of how Hayden’s scholarly and political roles interacted and reinforced each other, and at times generated friction or conflict, I hope to contribute to efforts to understand how and why the scholarly and the political can hardly be separated, but at the same time the appearance of their oppositional ties needs to be sustained.

South East Asia/South China Sea: The making of a cosmopolitan space since 1400

  • Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences
  • Contact:Dr Rui Oliveira Lopes
  • Application invited for:one PhD and one Master student


The recent turn in oceanic studies has transformed our understanding of the geographies, boundaries, and horizons of historical inquiry. In many respects, this maritime turn constitutes a salutary shift toward a transnational and globally entangled histories, of moving past the confines of bounded states or areas. However, even as this new approach dissolves one set of boundaries, it also risks re-assembling new ones. One of the key attributes of oceans is their connectedness, the lack of any obvious barrier preventing movements from one body of water to another. Yet the flourishing of Indian Ocean, Atlantic World, and Pacific World studies has the unintended consequence of segmenting maritime space, of reifying separate, even self-contained entities. There has been less explicit discussion of the various scales of interactions across different types of water bodies. This project seeks to foreground these multiple scales while also retaining some sense of distinctive social, environmental, and political dimensions of each. One maritime zone that can prove especially productive for illuminating these multiple scales of circulation, we suggest, is the South China Sea.

Integrated SOFC-Biomass gasification system for energy generation and water purification

  • Faculty of Integrated Technologies
  • Contact:Dr Abul K. Azad
  • Application invited for:PhD, MEng (Chemical & Process and Energy Systems)


The conjunction of biomass gasification with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is a promising and forthcoming possibility for electricity and heat cogeneration along with profound environmental and socioeconomic benefits. This is in-line with one of the strategies to achieve GDP target of 63% contibution from the non oil and gas sector, i.e. innovation technology and creative industry. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are in the commercialization phase and, therefore, would be interesting to integrate with biomass gasification technologies to have a single and highly efficient system; combining the benefits of each system to establish a new technology. Biomass fuelled integrated SOFC system is one of the key energy technologies of the future since it combines the merits of renewable energy sources and hydrogen energy systems. Together with an integrated gasification plant that gasifies wood chips in a two-step gasification process, electricity and heat will be produced in an environmentally friendly way. The produced heat will be used for water purification. This is a novel technique to produce electricity and driniking water, and lots of space to do research and development.

Nanostructured materials for supercapacitors for energy storage applications

  • Faculty of Integrated Technologies
  • Contact:Dr Abul K. Azad
  • Application invited for:PhD, MEng


Supercapacitor is an energy storage device that attempts to combine the high power density of a capacitor with the high energy density of a battery. Conventional supercapacitors use carbon based electrodes, mostly graphite. In recent years, alternatives such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other nanostructured materials have been considered to construct supercapacitor electrodes.

Single/double/triple perovskite-type electrodes for solid oxide fuel cells

  • Faculty of Integrated Technologies
  • Contact:Dr Abul K. Azad
  • Application invited for:PhD, MEng


There are many ceramics that has been investigated as potential anode materials and many of which are perovskite-type structures. Recently, double perovskites with the general formula A2BB/O6 have also been reported to be good anode materials.Changing of the A and B-site cations has strong effect not only on its structural and electrochemical properties but also on the performance in fuel cell applications. Many compositions have already been studied and many more is on-going to find the best composition. Huang et al. [1] reported that the double perovskite Sr2MgMoO6-δ has been an excellent anode as it yielded high power density and has high sulfur tolerance. Bernuy Lόpez et al. shows high redox and 1200 °C under 5% H2/Ar reducing and stability and up to 1000 °C under 5% H2/N2 conditions. However, recent work done by Bi et al. shows that the material possessed very poor intrinsic catalytic activity for oxidation of both H2 and CH4 in the absence of Pt mesh/paste as current collector. On the other hand, Vasala et al. has investigated the effects of W and Nb substitution on active element Mo in the structure and electrical properties. Niobium compounds are well known to show an excellent catalytic activity for different reactions, being used as active catalysts for methane oxidation. To our knowledge, no work has been done on the double perovskite material Sr2FeNbO6-δ as an anode in the application of solid oxide fuel cell. Fe and Ti ions are stable cations and have good stability of the perovskite structure against reduction. [1]. Y.-H. Huang, R. I. Dass, Z.-L. Xing, and J. B. Goodenough, “Double Perovskites as Anode Materials for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells,” Sci. , vol. 312, no. 5771, pp. 254–257, Apr. 2006.

Diffusion of lactic acid in cell-seeded tissue engineering scaffolds


While many studies in the literature assumed a similar value for the glucose diffusivity in both water and cell culture media (CCM), Suhaimi et al hypothesized the difference in the composition and hydrodynamic properties of both media should give different respective diffusivities. The results shown have proven the hypothesis to be correct. The glucose diffusivity in CCM has been found to be significantly reduced than the one in water due to CCM having a larger dynamic viscosity than water. Another reason may be due to the presence of extra components and therefore the difference in fluid properties of CCM. Although the result from this research does not exclusively apply to all other biological media/cultures since the variation in composition of media may imply a different diffusivity value, it does highlight the danger of assuming glucose diffusivity in CCM as equal to that in water. Similar to the self-diffusivity of glucose in CCM, the effective diffusivity for tissue engineering (TE) materials imbibed in CCM has also been found to be significantly smaller than those in water which is contrary to what have been generally assumed in the previous studies. This further proves that the presence of extra components is a contributing factor to a difference in the effective diffusivity value. Lactic acid is an example of a metabolic waste product produced by cells. As similar to the vascular system in vivo, we should mimic the system in such a way that the diffusion of lactate acid within the scaffold is also monitored. In this way, it may complete the biochemical communication and especially useful in developing a mathematical model that can simulate real situations.

Non-point pollution and its impacts on water quality of Brunei River.


Abstract: Problems with water quality normally link with increased pollutants as a result of human activities. River has constant interaction with its physical environment as well as the climate and human factors. There are two categories of water pollution sources: point and non-point sources. Point source pollution is due to direct discharge from waste water treatment and industrial plants, whereas non-point sources that come from other sources and locations (e.g. residential area). Brunei has 4 major rivers with Brunei Muara district being the most populated district. Hence Brunei river in Brunei Muara district could well be affected with pollutants. Hence it is the focus of this research project to focus on non-point pollution along the residential area of Brunei river and its impact on water quality.

Hydrodynamic studies of circular cross flow membrane filtration.


Abstract: Membrane fouling is a major impediment to membrane efficiency and it results in the reduction of membrane performance. Despite the vast efforts to reduce the effect of membrane fouling by improving membrane properties, optimizing operating conditions and pre-treatment of feed water, fouling is unavoidable. Improved hydrodynamic conditions such as manipulating shear rates on membrane surfaces, improved design of the membrane systems, and induced flow instabilities are other useful methods in overcoming membrane fouling and concentration polarization. These methods would be further studied using both experimental and computational methods in a circular cross flow membrane filtration.

Biorefinery concept: Valorisation of biomass and wastes to value-added products and energy


Brunei has the potential to generate value-added products, chemicals, fuels and energy from biomass or wastes from industries via biomass conversion processes such as gasification and pyrolysis. The concept of biorefinery is the integration of processes which is comparable to petroleum refinery, but instead it uses biomass as its feedstock and has the potential to diversify the economy away from oil and gas. Rice husk, rice straw, grasses, invasive species (eg: Acacia) and algae species are a few of many potential candidates of biomass feedstock. However, the selection of biomass feedstock and their characterisation is an essential pre-requisite step to find out whether the material is suitable for conversion. The generated biomass products have to also undergo characterisation to assess their viability towards potential usage in various industrial applications such as energy and bio-based chemicals.

Design and optimisation of a novel biomass catalytic screw reactor


The objective of this project is to design and improve the biomass pyrolysis system, particularly the reactor and feeding unit. Students are required to review the existing system in laboratory, pilot plants and industries, particularly on biomass conversion systems; compare and make several design concepts to suit the requirement. A simple prototype is expected which shall be incorporated onto our existing pyrolysis/gasification system unit. Knowledge on CAD software such as Solidwork is essential.

End-to-End security of IoTs

  • Faculty of Integrated Technologies
  • Contact:Dr Sandhya Aneja
  • Application invited for:Ph.D./Masters Programme with Major in Networks, Programming and Linux systems


There are mainly two types of networks, one is Internet and other is Telecommunication network. IoT devices connects using one of these existing networks. Underlying networks are secure and thus now securing IoT devices end to end means extending the security mechanism where these devices connects. A solution for security where IoT device uses Internet is to be explored in the project.

Communication over wireless peer to peer network

  • Faculty of Integrated Technologies
  • Contact:Dr Sandhya Aneja
  • Application invited for:Ph.D/Masters Programme with Major in Networks, Programming and Linux systems


In, a peer-to-peer wireless network, there is no hierarchy among the devices. All the devices are equal and therefore are known as peers. Each device determines what data is to be shared on the network. In peer-to-peer network, each device functions as both a client and a server. How calls may be setup in such a network, is to be explored in this project.

A framwork for smart applications over cloud using SIoTs

  • Faculty of Integrated Technologies
  • Contact:Dr Sandhya Aneja
  • Application invited for:Ph.D/Masters Programme with Major in Networks, Programming and Linux systems


The things connected to Internet depends on the social behaviour of humans which are carrying and using them. Also, social behaviour of people determines the usage of devices and software required for those devices. Solutions to many services may be provided using SIoTs towards the goal of smart cities and smart nations. We aim to develop a framework for deployment of SIoTs over which applications may be written to communicate IoTs and can be used in real scenarios.

Historical Heritage sites in Brunei Darussalam


The State of Brunei Darussalam is characterized by a very diverse and facinating historical background strongly tied to the sea. Most of Brunei has been underwater for the last 15 millions of years and, since then, it emerged very slowly up to its present position. During this period,offshore Brunei experienced a number of events such as sea level changes and biodiversity oscillations still visible today both on onshore outcrops and in the offshore deposits. Today the offshore harbors several coral reefs and preserves remnants of the Second World War which greatly contribute to the diversity of the marine life. This project aims to study all those past and recent events that have transformed the Sultanate into a sanctuary of biodiversity and richness. Brunei abundant historical sites need to be preserved, highlighted, correctly displayed for the local community as part of their heritage and have to potentially become very attractive to tourists and scientists to boost the local economy. The ultimate goal is to reach out to the local community and make it aware of all these sites and suggest how to showcase them to boost the local economy.

Benthic Biodiversity offshore Brunei Darussalam.


Foraminifera are major component in terms of biodiversity of the Benthic systems in the marine environment. It seems from Preliminary data that offshore Brunei harbors an extremely diverse fauna. Calcarinids, Amphisteginids, Larger Benthic Symbion bearing Foraminifera and all the small Benthics all seem to be nicely displayed to their respective water depth limitations. Studying their diversity and distribution will give us clues on how to interpret the palaeoenvironments of a lot of onshore outcrops.

Neocortex Models for Athletes (NMA)


The intended goal of this project will be to design and to emulate neocortex models of athletes (NMA) using hierarchical reinforcement learning. The criteria used to design NMA is based on goals set by trainers/coaches for athletes in different sports. NMA will be tested using case based reasoning with the knowledge base already formed and evolving for different national sports.

Petrogenesis of Ophiolite Suites in Borneo Island and Comparisons with the Zambales (Philippines) and Othrys (Greece) Ophiolites: Possible implications on the Genesis of Abiotic Methane


Ophiolites represent remnants of the Earth's Upper Mantle and Oceanic Crust. Knowledge of their geotectonic evolution and petrogenesis are considered as fundamental keys to the reconstruction of the Earth's history and geotectonic evolution, as they comprise huge and important parts of the Earth's interior. Recently, it has been suggested that these rocks are responsible for the production and exhalation of methane of abiotic origin, which is a theme of growing interest. The present study deals with the detailed investigation of the Borneo ophiolite suite, aiming to unravel the complex geological history of Borneo Island with several implications on the geological development of Malaysia. Geological mapping in certain areas of interest in the Sabah region (Pulau Malawali, Kundasang, Ranau, Telupid, Beluran, please see map provided), collection and preparation of specimens, as well as their thorough microscopic investigation, employing polarising and Scanning Electron Microscope techniques, will be performed. Gas emissions from the ophiolite will be analysed, in order to test the hypothesis for the production of abiotic methane. The proposed research aims at: (i) unraveling the genesis and evolution of the Ancient Mantle and Oceanic Crust of the area of Borneo from the acquisition of data during a thorough petrological investigation, and (ii) investigating the role of these rocks in the formation of the unconventional production of abiotic methane.

A Pilot Geochemical Atlas for Resource Exploration and Environmental Management in the Brunei-Muara District, Brunei Darussalam


Geochemical mapping of large regions is a challenge for applied geoscientists as it is a fundamental tool for the exploration of a plethora of Earth resources, as well as for environmental monitoring and land management. For this reason, regional-, national- and global-scale geochemical mapping projects have been carried out in various countries the last decades (e.g. Geochemical Map of Europe, USA, large regions of Africa, etc.).. The current project is proposed to cover the District of Brunei-Muara as a first effort to construct a similar Atlas in Brunei Darussalam. The area is dominated by sedimentary formations of Miocene to Quaternary age and characterised by various geological units, which have been accumulated from the discharge of ancient and modern rivers and their interaction with a marine environment. A large number of samples will be collected and analysed in order to highlight potential geochemical organic and inorganic anomalies. Subsequent interpretation of these anomalies will lead to implications regarding: (i) the potential existence of economic resources, (ii) environmental applications (e.g. biosorbents of pollutants, waste filters), iii) adverse environmental impacts (anthropogenic and natural) and the consequences to public health, and (iv) the provenance of the sediments and consequently the geological history of Brunei Darussalam.

Plant conservation in human influenced landscape of Brunei Darussalam


The Anthropocene has been proposed as a new geological period characterized by the impact of human society on native ecosystems. In an epoch characterized by rapid depletion of resources, large scale deforestation, rapid urbanization, extinction of species and aggravated climate change, agroforestry systems, small forest patches and homegardens are recognized as key factors within the landscape matrix, for conservation of biodiversity at the local level. Proponents of the emerging field of Biocultural Diversity also point out to the parallelism existing between biological, cultural and linguistic diversities, and the possibility of co-evolution and interdependencies between these entities that were hitherto considered independent of each other. In this context, the proposed project aims to study the plant diversity in the human modified landscape of Brunei Darussalam, including how the local community has contributed to plant conservation, and the economic, social and cultural importance of native plant species. We will assess: 1) the plant species diversity, 2) the contribution of the local community in conservation of native species and the economic and biocultural importance of these species. UBD students of Bruneian Nationality will participate in the research; final outputs would include scientific papers, conference presentations and distribution maps of endangered plant species in Brunei. The results will be an important tool for policy makers, researchers and local communities looking forward for the dual cause of conserving both biological and cultural diversities.

Revision of Osmundaceae fern family


Osmindaceae is one of the most archaic fern family, within the Flora Malasyana project I am conducting a taxonomic revision of this family for the Malesian Region. Up to now we know approximately 17 species in this area. The project is expected to be published in 2019.

Machine Learning Algorithms [MSc/Phd level]


There are several learning algorithms or areas that we are studying such as 1) Evolutionary methods for unsupervised/semi-supervised clustering 2) Metric Learning algorithms, similarity measures 3) Model-based techniques 4) Time-based clustering algorithms 5) Intelligent Data Fusion. For interested candidates, please kindly send your academic transcripts, research proposal and publications, if any.

Data Mining Frameworks [MSc/Phd level]


There are several projects where we apply data mining and machine learning to discover patterns: 1) Clinical/Biomedical datasets (a) cancer registry, b) health surveys, c) cardiac rehabilitation) 2) Open data 3) Studying of driving behaviours through simulated data For interested candidates, please kindly send your academic transcripts, research proposal and publications, if any.

MSc level Projects


:::::::::::::::Project 1) Creating R libraries for semi-supervised Fuzzy c-means methodologies: In this project, we create R libraries for the R research community to use. ::::::::::::::::Project 2) Automatic Data Fusion: In this project, we develop a platform or framework that can automate the process of data integration of data set from various sources and data abstraction for knowledge discovery. For interested candidates, please kindly send your academic transcripts, research proposal and publications, if any.

Microbubbles as targeted drug delivery vehicles


Microbubbles are micron-sized, inert gas cores stabilised by a biocompatible surfactant in an aqueous dispersion. Introduced into the blood stream via intravenous injection, they react with ultrasonic waves to create very specific signals. This improves the contrast between tissue and the surroundings, effectively “lighting up” the blood in an ultrasonic image. More recently, microbubbles have been shown to be a promising targeted drug delivery vehicle. Drugs could be loaded onto a microbubble surface and upon reaching a specific site for drug delivery, the microbubbles could be popped to release drugs only at that particular site. This method of targeted drug delivery is of particular interest in cancer therapeutics as undesirable side effects could be minimised by only targeting cancerous cells and leaving healthy cells intact during chemotherapy. In this project, you will learn how to create, handle and characterise microbubbles using a variety of analytical methods, namely optical microscopy and ultraviolet spectroscopy. Once proficient in handling and characterising microbubbles, you will investigate methods of loading drugs onto microbubbles via adsorption to microbubble surface. Permeation studies will also be carried out in order to determine efficacy of microbubble-drug permeability.

Combining ultrasound and microbubbles for targeted drug delivery


Microbubbles are micron-sized, inert gas cores stabilised by a biocompatible surfactant in an aqueous dispersion. Introduced into the blood stream via intravenous injection, they react with ultrasonic waves to create very specific signals. This improves the contrast between tissue and the surroundings, effectively “lighting up” the blood in an ultrasonic image. More recently, microbubbles have been shown to be a promising targeted drug delivery vehicle. Drugs could be loaded onto a microbubble surface and upon reaching a specific site for drug delivery, the microbubbles could be popped to release drugs only at that particular site. This method of targeted drug delivery is of particular interest in cancer therapeutics as undesirable side effects could be minimised by only targeting cancerous cells and leaving healthy cells intact during chemotherapy. In this project, you will study the effects on sonoporation on a permeable membrane and to see whether microbubbles improve permeability due to cavitation.

Green Synthesis of Novel Schiff Bases


The introduction of new therapeutic agents to act against various diseases is very essential nowadays due to the emergence of diseases. Schiff bases are very potential compounds which can be effective against the problem of drug resistance and they have been known to be capable of exhibiting a wide range of biological potentials such as anticancer, antibacterial and antifungal. Recently, much attention has been focused on Schiff bases derived from amino derivatives such as S-alkyl/aryl esters of dithiocarbazic acids. The main aim of this project is to explore on the green synthesis of novel straight chain and cyclic Schiff bases using a variety of carbonyl compounds and amino derivatives.

Dynamic kernel density estimation in the chaotic advection problem


The aim of the project is to develop numerical strategies for obtaining accurate estimations of the tracer concentration fields from the ensemble of stochastic trajectory solutions of the Lagrangian particle dispersion model. Specifically, more information can be obtained in a stochastic problem than just a static density. We can go beyond standard kernel density estimation (KDE) methods by exploiting the fact that we are solving a dynamic problem. Hence we can introduce a new class of methods, which we will call the dynamic KDE (DKDE). The starting point of DKDE is the Green's function representation of the solution to the advection-diffusion equation (or Fokker-Planck equation). The Green's function for a short-time interval is then approximated by considering the leading order WKBJ series solution of the advection-diffusion equation, under the assumption that the diffusivity parameter is small.

Pan-tropical Forest Tree Project


This work is a cooperative project joined by more than 200 researchers worldwide. It currently contains data from more than 3000 individual plots, about 800,000 trees, including approximately 12,000 tree species. This data will be used for mapping and understanding tropical tree species distributions worldwide. Please contact me if you like to join by contributing your tree inventory data.

Brunei Forest Observatory


This project will establish a large network of permanent plots in the many undisturbed forest types of Brunei Darussalam. This network will function as a research infrastructure for the study of tropical forests under climate change. Data will be collected on tree species composition, tree growth, recruitment and mortality, soil parameters, climate and any other relevant environmental parameters. The idea is that researchers from around the world will come to Brunei to use this research infrastructure. We hope to have this project ready and running by 2016.

Forest Fragmentation Project Southwest China


In 2012 we established 50 permanent plots in forest fragments ranging in size from one to several 1000 hectares in Xishuangbanna, southern China. These forest fragments are surrounded by rubber plantations that have sprung up in the region since the 1990s. Again, the idea is that researchers from around the world will come and use this permanent research infrastructure to study the effects of forest fragmentation on both animals and plants. If you are interested to work in this plot network, please contact me.

Construction and Evaluation of Homemade Smartphone Spectrophotometer in Studying Beer’s Law


Mobile phones have become part of our day-to-day activities and they are constantly changing the way we communicate and learn. The portability and ubiquity of smartphones has provided new possibilities for the chemistry laboratory to support blended learning and provide opportunities for entrepreneurial skills and environmental awareness. In this project, the students will design, build and test homemade spectrophotometer using a mobile phone and simple components with creative designs. The performance of the constructed prototype will be compared with commercial spectrophotometers currently being used in the laboratory in studying Beer's Law and absorbance spectrometry. This project will be part of a bigger collaborative project with a Computer Science final year student who will be in charge of developing the mobile Apps specific for the designed prototype.

Construction and Evaluation of Solid-State Ion Selective Electrodes (ISE) Prepared from Pencil Leads Coated with Conducting Polymers and Sol-Gel Membranes


The aim of the project is to fabricate ISE’s from graphite pencil leads through electrode modification with conducting polymers as well as sol-gel procedures. The fabricated electrodes will be evaluated based on their potentiometric response with pH and various cations and anions.

Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Properties of Selected Native Plant Species from Brunei


Many plant species indigenous to Brunei are unexplored in terms of their usefulness as functional food and medicine or as a source of compounds with special properties such as pigments for solar cell applications. This study provides a preliminary investigation on the availability of chemical components in plants that have special properties that may be utilised for various applications. The students should be able to integrate the theory and practice of spectroscopy and electrochemistry in solving real world problems.

Development of novel and smart nanomaterials for sustainable energy and environment applications.


Synthesizing novel and smart nanomaterials using green approach for sustainable energy and environment applications.

Fabrication of novel perovskites nanomaterials for energy and environment.


Synthesizing novel perovskites nanomaterials for possible energy and environment applications.

Food Analysis


As an Islamic country, Brunei Darussalam strives to implement the production of Halal products, especially food, in accordance to Islamic dietary law. However, majority of the commercial food products in Brunei are yet being imported from abroad. Hence, there is a risk on food frauds to be aware of by the public. For example, contamination of food products by traces of pork material.Currently, we are working on a detection system based on Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) or Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) that could allow detection of low abundance pork DNA in food samples. In addition, we are also striving to develop novel methodologies based on electrochemical and colorimetric detection systems. In parallel, we are also attempting to improve the efficacy of each methodology by implementing nanotechnology on catalytic mechanisms, biochips production and so on, as well as to develop a detection system that can be utilized for on-site monitoring. Putting it together, our goal is to develop highly sensitive, highly specific, rapid, portable and robust detection systems that can be employed for on-site monitoring during Halal food inspection.Please email: <minhaz.ahmed@ubd.edu.bn> with your interests for updated proposals.

Microbial analysis


By targeting specific DNA regions of pathogens, RT-PCR can be employed for the detection of foodborne and waterborne pathogens for microbial analysis. Currently, we are in collaboration with the Institute of Health Science (IHS) to develop a detection system based on RT-PCR technique for the detection of bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Legionella pneumophila and Staphylococcus aureus.Furthermore, we are also developing new strategies using tablet blister packs for the detection of White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), which has been associated with shrimps infection harvested from South China Sea that has caused huge economic losses.With the increase of undeclared importation of plants and planting materials from neighboring countries, local plants are more susceptible to dangerous diseases caused by microbes infections. Hence, we are also planning to develop strategies that can allow detection of harmful microbes to identify infected plants in counter for further damages. Please email: <minhaz.ahmed@ubd.edu.bn> with your interests for updated proposals.

Clinical diagnostics


Cancer is one of the leading causes of death not only in Brunei Darussalam, but also globally. human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)is a hormone commonly found in the serum of pregnant women. Presence of significant high level of hCG in men and non-pregnant women can serve as an indication for cancer development. Previously, our laboratory has conducted studies on the detection of hCG based on nanotechnology and electrochemical biosensing approach. By electrochemically quantifying the level of gold nanoparticles that are conjugated to anti-hCG antibody, we could indirectly quantify the level of hCG in serum. Using this strategy as template, we are striving to bring this methodology toward the detection of other biomarkers like sIgA (Saliva), C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin 1 Beta, Prostate specific antigen (PSA) etc. Please email: <minhaz.ahmed@ubd.edu.bn> with your interests for updated proposals.

Polyphenols in protecting hepatocytes from lipid accumulation and lipid-mediated cellular damage.


NAFLD includes a spectrum of conditions associated with lipid deposition in liver cells (hepatocytes) and inability of the liver cells to respond to insulin (insulin resistance). We have shown previously that induction of autophagy can prevent accumulation of lipid droplets in the hepatocytes and improves hepatic steatosis which leads to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This project is aiming to investigate the biochemical properties of several promising polyphenols in inducing autophagy in liver cell lines along with their role on lipogenesis and insulin signalling in hepatocytes.

Spatio-temporal analysis of healthcare data


This project is related to the spatio-temporal analysis of the healthcare data collected through survey. Different data mining techniques will be applied to find the saptio-temporal patterns in the data.

Exploratory data analysis using clustering techniques for health-survey repository


This study explores different data mining techniques for clustering/classification of health survey data.

Computer Vision/Image Processing and Deep Learning Applications


Various applications of computer vision/image processing techniques using various sensors and machine learning/deep learning techniques; CanaKit Raspberry Pi 3 Kit, Raspberry Pi 3 IBM IoT Kit, Raspberry Pi Touchscreen Display, Raspberry Pi 3 Camera Kit, XBOX ONE KINECT SENSOR

A Pilot Geochemical Atlas for Resource Exploration and Environmental Management in the Brunei-Muara District, Brunei Darussalam


Geochemical mapping of large regions is a challenge for applied geoscientists as it is a fundamental tool for the exploration of a plethora of Earth resources, as well as for environmental monitoring and land management. For this reason, regional-, national- and global-scale geochemical mapping projects have been carried out in various countries the last decades (e.g. Geochemical Map of Europe, USA, large regions of Africa, etc.).. The current project is proposed to cover the District of Brunei-Muara as a first effort to construct a similar Atlas in Brunei Darussalam. The area is dominated by sedimentary formations of Miocene to Quaternary age and characterised by various geological units, which have been accumulated from the discharge of ancient and modern rivers and their interaction with a marine environment. A large number of samples will be collected and analysed in order to highlight potential geochemical organic and inorganic anomalies. Subsequent interpretation of these anomalies will lead to implications regarding: (i) the potential existence of economic resources, (ii) environmental applications (e.g. biosorbents of pollutants, waste filters), iii) adverse environmental impacts (anthropogenic and natural) and the consequences to public health, and (iv) the provenance of the sediments and consequently the geological history of Brunei Darussalam.

Petroleum system analysis of Cretaceous-Paleacene Formation, Great South Basin, New Zealand


The petroleum system concept helps oil companies to decide which prospects are most likely to contain oil or gas. Source rock and reservoir rocks are critical to the success of a petroleum system, and includes generation and maturation of organic matter to become source and the migration of these source rocks to the reservoirs. Every exploration initiates with the evaluation of source rock on a regional scale. Of high importance in this scope is the estimation of hydrocarbon potential of the source rock. This information can be further integrated with various components of basin development, which include the rate of sedimentation, rate of subsidence, burial history and thermal history. In this study, the source rock analyzed are from the Cretaceous-Paleocene Hoiho and Taratu formations. Organic geochemistry helps determine whether the source rock has the capacity for oil or gas generation, and whether the source rock is mature enough for hydrocarbon expulsion. Reservoir characterization studies is another part of that study using well log data, and seismic section to discover the subsurface structural configuration and evaluate the reservoir quality evolution in terms of porosity and permeability to accommodate adequate amount of hydrocarbon.

Integrated petroleum system studies using source rock and reservoir characterizations of Taranaki Basin New Zealand


This study is a part of larger research topic of the analysis of petroleum system elements of Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene Farewell Formations of Taranaki Basin, New Zealand. The petroleum system is a unifying concept that encompasses all of the different elements and processes of petroleum geology, which include the crucial elements (source, reservoir, seal and overburden rocks), essential processes (trap formation and generation-migration-accumulation), and all genetically-related hydrocarbons which have migrated from one pool of effective source rocks to reservoir accumulations, shows or seeps. Relative timing of these elements and processes are very crucial for the accumulation and preservation of hydrocarbons. Petroleum exploration is futile without these elements, and hence, tits study is highly important.

Ground- and Surface Water Investigation in Brunei Darussalam


Brunei relies heavily on its surface water resources for drinking water usage. This project will study hydrochemical changes at key sampling points (lake, river, groundwater) through longterm monitoring techniques using datalogger as well as passive samplers.The benefits of passive sampling over traditional sampling methods will be highlighted. Moreover it is planned to study the water balance of peat soils as well as perform groundwater mapping exercises using geophysical tools.

Monitoring of potential landslide locations in Brunei Darussalam


Landslides are not uncommon in Brunei and can be potentially deadly. It is important to understand the mechanisms which trigger these events. Therefore this project aims to select monitoring sites for a longterm monitoring program. Key aspects such as the water content of the soil at various depths, the slope inclination together with rainfall data will be studied over time. The aim of the project is to be able to make better predictions on the occurrence of landslides in Brunei.

Investigation of Formation Damage of a Brunei Darussalam Oil and Gas Reservoir


Scaling and Formation Damage can severely reduce the production of oil and gas. This project aims to perform scaling simulation as well as Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) studies to identify scaling and potential formation damage mechanisms. It is also planned to perform coreflooding studies to investigate scaling and formation damage under Reservoir Pressure and Temperature.

Unsupervised human activities recognition


Human Activity Recognition (HAR) is an important component in assistive technologies, however, we have not seen wide adoption of HAR technologies in our homes. Two main hurdles to the wide adoption of HAR technologies in our homes are the expensive infrastructure requirement and the use of supervised learning in the HAR technologies. Many HAR researches have been carried out assuming an environment embedded with sensors. In addition, the majority of HAR technologies use supervised approaches, where there are labeled data to train the expert system. In reality, our natural living environment are not embedded with sensors. Labeled data are not available in our natural living environment. We are developing a framework for autonomous HAR suitable in our natural living environment, i.e. the sensor-less homes. The framework uses unsupervised learning approach to enable a robot, acting as a mobile sensor hub, to autonomously collect data and learn the different human activities without requiring manual (human) labeling of the data.

Personal-cloud based smart devices for Internet of Things (IoT)


Smart devices in an IoT system, such as the smart home, either connect through their own proprietary server running their server side applications, or they connect through the user home network where a center device is running the necessary server side applications. The second approach is not flexible and not user friendly to setup. There is increasing number of systems that take the first approach of having their own cloud server. However, not all inventors are capable of hosting their cloud server to cater for large volume of users. This restricts the development of large scale IoT systems to large companies. There is also the concern of being tied to a proprietary service. To address this issue and to allow amateur inventors to build large scale IoT systems, we are developing a new form of connectivity for IoT systems by exploiting personal-cloud services such as DropBox and Google Drive.

Self-driving car


Self-driving car technologies are growing and maturing. It will be part of the future transport system. We are initiating our venture into this domain inline with our interest in robot navigation. In this project, we will build a prototype self-driving car and use it to conduct research works in the various aspects of self-driving car.

The diversity of aquatic primary producers in Brunei Darussalam and the evaluation on their potentials for commercialization


Aquatic primary producers (e.g., seaweeds, seagrasses, microalgae), which are most fundamental organisms in aquatic ecosystems, have been globally receiving attention from many industrial areas (e.g, food, pharmaceuticals, fertilizers, biofuel). Brunei Darussalam has a rich diversity of marine life but the diversity of aquatic primary producers and their potentials as an economic source have not been studied comprehensively. This research project aims (1) to identify aquatic primary producers in Brunei and make a database of the diversity for nature conservation, (2) to evaluate the physiological characteristics of key species (e.g., the response to environmental changes), and (3) to search for useful substances that can be utilized or hopeful in industrial areas (medical, agricultural, and food sciences).

Stability of polymer solar cells.


Conjugated semiconducting polymers are promising materials for low cost solar cell due to the ease of large scale production with roll to roll printing. However these materials require more study to determine their photochemical stability and thermal stability for use in organic solar cells.

EARLY DETECTION OF LUNG CANCER CASES BY IMPROVING AWARENESS AND PRACTICE

  • Pengiran Anak Puteri Rashidah Sa'adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences
  • Contact:Dr Lin Naing
  • Application invited for:ONE MASTER STUDENT - MASTER OF HEALTH SCIENCE IN PUBLIC HEALTH


Majority of lung cancer patients were diagnosed in Stage 3 or 4 and overall median survival time was 6.1 months in Brunei Darussalam. Although the survival time was comparable to some developed countries, survival can be improved by early detection. Improving awareness of individuals on risk factors, early signs and symptoms, and practice of regular check up, the survival can be improved. Therefore, we are interested to assess the awareness and practice in the community. The study will involve, designing and validation of research tool, and a survey method to achieve the study objectives.

KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF SMOKING AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN BRUNEI DARUSSALAM

  • Pengiran Anak Puteri Rashidah Sa'adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences
  • Contact:Dr Lin Naing
  • Application invited for:ONE MASTER STUDENT - MASTER OF HEALTH SCIENCE IN PUBLIC HEALTH


Smoking-related diseases have been the primary cause of mortality in Brunei Darussalam. Recent study showed that the prevalence of smoking in Brunei Darussalam was still high (15.2% among adult populations and 31.8% among male). It is important to understand knowledge, attitude and practice with regard to smoking among Brunei population so that effective intervention can be carried out in the future. The study will involve, designing and validation of research tool, and a survey method to achieve the study objectives.

FORECASTING OF INCIDENCE OF CANCERS IN BRUNEI DARUSSALAM USING TIME-SERIES METHODS

  • Pengiran Anak Puteri Rashidah Sa'adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences
  • Contact:Dr Lin Naing
  • Application invited for:ONE PHD STUDENT - PHD IN PUBLIC HEALTH


Cancer is a leading cause of deaths in Brunei Darussalam. Using the past available data since the start of cancer registry in 2002, it will be adequate to assess the existing data and develop methods to forecast for the next 3 to 5 years. Various time-series methods will be explored to identify the best-fit model for the forecasting. Developing models, evaluating models to identify the best-fit model, and using the model to forecast will be the key steps.

CLINICAL STUDY ON EFFECT OF D-ALLULOSE (RARE SUGAR) IN SUBJECTS WITH BMI > 25

  • Pengiran Anak Puteri Rashidah Sa'adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences
  • Contact:FAZEAN IRDAYATI IDRIS
  • Application invited for:


D-allulose is a pure form of rare sugar manufactured synthetically without animal or alcohol derivatives. The aim of this 24-week double-blinded, prospective, randomized controlled trial is to investigate the effect of consumption of D-allulose on overweight and obese individuals, and to compare with erythritol (non-calorie sweetener). The objectives of the trial are to evaluate and compare the effect of D-allulose and erythritol by measuring: (i) body weight and BMI change; (ii) body fat composition (iii) full blood count, HbA1c, TNF-alpha, urine, lipid, renal and liver function profiles at 12 and 24 weeks; and (iv) evaluate overall satisfaction on the D-allulose consumption and assess participants’ diet and physical activity using a novel mobile application. Healthy adults with BMI 25 and above will be recruited from the community and clinical setting. We aim to recruit a total of 80 participants of which 40 will be randomly assigned to test product (D-allulose) and 40 to control (erythritol, a non-calorie sweetener). This randomised product (test or control) is to be diluted in liquid and consumed three times a day, 30 minutes before meal or immediately after meals. Daily consumption of this randomized products will be recorded by participants via a mobile application which is also used to record meals consumed as per protocol. Baseline measurements of participants will include the following: body temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, weight and height, waist and hip circumference and percentage body fat. Baseline blood tests will include the following: full blood count, plasma insulin and glucose, HbA1c, GIP, GLP-1, TNF-alpha, fasting lipid, renal and liver function profiles and urine for microscopic examination.

The nature and extend of palliative care and terminal suffering among hospitalised patients in Brunei Darussalam


With an increasing terminally ill population across the world, there is greater awareness and interest among international health policy makers in improving quality of life for terminally ill patients. In Brunei Darussalam hospital services are utilized more commonly particularly during the last days of life. The Wawasan 2015 for Brunei Darussalam has highlighted the delivery of high quality care in the acute hospital setting as an area of priority. Yet one of the most common complaints is that hospitals are related to care during last hours of life. Previous research also found that older people often experience perceived poor care and mistrust on the quality end of life care at hospitals. On the other side (of the world), palliative and end of life care in Brunei Darussalam yet remains in its developmental stages. Around 98% of Brunei Darussalam palliative population does not have access to palliative care5 and little is known about extent of palliative care needs among hospitalized patients from this population. The aim of this study is to explore the extent and meaning of terminal suffering among hospitalised Brunei Darussalam patients. . * Application invited for ONE PHD STUDENT -PhD in Nursing

BARRIERS AND FACILITATORS OF KIDNEY DONATION: A NATIONAL STUDY ON PERSPECTIVES OF LIVING ELIGIBLE DONORS IN BRUNEI DARUSSALAM


Brunei Darussalam has one of the highest prevalence and incidence of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) in the world. Ministry of Health, Brunei Darussalam has shown the steady increase in number of patients undergoing renal replacement therapy. In 2014, 94.5% of total ESRD patients underwent dialysis and only 5.5% underwent transplant done elsewhere. The Department of Renal Services, Ministry of Health encourages ESRD patients to opt for kidney transplantation as their primary treatment choice rather than undergoing dialysis treatment three times a week as financial burden related to dialysis treatment and the renal translation proved as effective as in increasing survival and improving quality of life. Recently, Sultanate of Brunei successfully completed transplant surgeries at local level. However, similar to any other country, there is shortage of kidney donors at local level. Studies in western world explored cultural beliefs, mistrust, fear, lack of information, being old, and pre-existing medical conditions as barriers to living kidney donation among relatives of patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis. Yet little is explored around barriers and facilitators of organ donation, in particular kidney donation among the perspectives of living eligible donors in Brunei Darussalam. This study aims to explore the perspectives of living donor kidney transplantation among family members of patients with ESRD in Brunei Darussalam.Application invited for ONE PHD STUDENT -PhD in Nursing

Improving the Utilization of Evidence based Practice among nurses in Brunei Darussalam (IUEP study): a mixed method randomized controlled trial


EBP has widely been accepted as an appropriate framework for health care professionals including healthcare professionals to embrace and use as a basis for their practice. Several studies identified that EBP can lead to a higher quality of care, improved patient outcomes, a culture of safety, and decreased cost of health care. Besides the benefits of using EBP in health care, there were inconsistencies in its utilization and implementation in the clinical working environment. The Ministry of Health in Brunei Darussalam wanted to achieve service excellence through strategy Vision 2035 by utilizing evidence based approaches, interventions and practices in the health care system. Vision 2035 also indicate the Ministry’s expectation towards healthcare professionals in ensuring high quality healthcare settings care they provide to patients are based on current research findings. To achieve Vision 2035, there is a need to build an organizational cultures that support EBP, implement strategies to enhance healthcare professionals’ EBP knowledge and skills, and provide environments where EBP can thrive and be sustained is necessary. However, this appeared to be a challenging agenda and goal the level of healthcare professionals’ understanding or skills to apply EBP in their daily practice in Brunei is currently unclear. Healthcare professionals’ ability to integrate and utilize research evidence into the practice in order to deliver optimal patient care in Brunei Darussalam has not been investigated. This study will be undertaken to understand the level of healthcare professionals’ utilisation of EBP in their daily care. The outcomes from this study will be highly significant in promoting EBP in Brunei Darussalam’s health care system by informing educators in that areas that needs improvement in healthcare settings education and policy makers in planning healthcare professionals’ professional development opportunities.Application invited for ONE PHD STUDENT -PhD in Nursing

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice (KAP) survey on infectious diseases among general population in Brunei

  • Pengiran Anak Puteri Rashidah Sa'adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences
  • Contact:Dr. Li Ling Chaw
  • Application invited for:MPH, PhD


Studies on the awareness on infectious diseases among the general population are currently lacking in Brunei. Conducting KAP surveys on specific diseases will help public health stakeholders to understand the level of awareness among the general public, thus helping to plan better strategies or educational campaigns for awareness and prevention. A KAP study on Zika virus is currently on-going.

Developing non-conventional surveillance systems for infectious diseases in Brunei

  • Pengiran Anak Puteri Rashidah Sa'adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences
  • Contact:Dr. Li Ling Chaw
  • Application invited for:Undergraduate, Postgraduate


Traditional infectious disease surveillance systems involve rigorous sample collection in selected sites and diagnostic testing, which involve a significant amount of resources (both human and monetary). To help address this issue, other countries have started using other forms of surveillance systems which uses existing datasets. Students who are interested in this topic would have the opportunity to work with people outside the health sector (such as in education, meteorological and IT sectors).

Assessing burden and risk factors of infectious disease among specific population

  • Pengiran Anak Puteri Rashidah Sa'adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences
  • Contact:Dr. Li Ling Chaw
  • Application invited for:MPH, PhD


Studies on the burden of infectious diseases are lacking in Brunei. This is a pressing issue, especially for mosquito-borne diseases. To address this, field studies can be implemented to calculate the incidence rate of a disease and determine any risk factors of getting the disease. Understand both burden and risk factors would help to highlight any impact of an infectious disease that could be under-recognised.

Bruneian Local Rice Study

  • Pengiran Anak Puteri Rashidah Sa'adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences
  • Contact:Dr Siti Rohaiza Ahmad
  • Application invited for:


Impact on health and product innovation

Genetic variation profiling of 100 important pharmacogenes in the Bruneian population

  • Pengiran Anak Puteri Rashidah Sa'adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences
  • Contact:Dr Zen Huat Lu
  • Application invited for:PhD/Master by research


Pharmacogenomics or the associations between genetic traits of individuals and their responses to drugs is believed to hold the key to the solution of low (30 to 60%) pharmaceutical efficacy observed in many of today’s drug treatments. In ASEAN, information pertaining to the prevalence of pharmacogenomic biomarkers is incomplete. Individual case safety reports (adverse effects or drug-related problems) per million population per year range from ~3600 in Singapore to just 9 in Brunei. Therefore, an ASEAN-wide pharmacogenomics consortium has recently been tasked to fill in the gap. As a collaborative project between ASEAN countries and RIKEN (Japan), the initial study will involve the next-generation sequencing of 100 important pharmacogenes in 1000 individuals across the 10 ASEAN nations. In Brunei, DNA from 100 anonymous healthy individuals will be extracted and the 100 pharmcogenes library constructed for sequencing at RIKEN. Genetic variations identified here and those from other ASEAN individuals will aid in the estimation of allelic frequencies of genotypic biomarkers of drug metabolisers. Such information should ultimately provide the important scientific support on the wider implementation of pharmacogenomic screening in Brunei and ASEAN using a customised pharmacogene panel.

A Genotype Catalogue of (Potential Human Genetic Disorders in) the Southeast Asian Populations

  • Pengiran Anak Puteri Rashidah Sa'adatul Bolkiah Institute of Health Sciences
  • Contact:Dr Zen Huat Lu
  • Application invited for:Final Year Undergraduate or Internship


Millions of human genomics variants from different studies have been made publicly available over the last three decades. While many genetic disorders have been identified consequently, much remains undeciphered and yet understanding of these variants is paramount to the realisation of personalised precision medicine. Regrettably, systematic variant data for the majority Austronesian population groups in Southeast Asia have been at best patchy if not upright shortcoming. Our current effort attempts to catalogue all the known genotypes, including their allele frequencies, in this region and link them to reported genetic disorders.

A Gender and Youth Perspective on the Development of NGOs in Brunei Darussalam

  • Institute of Policy Studies
  • Contact:Norainie Ahmad
  • Application invited for:


In recent years, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in the country have not only been growing in number and size, but also in terms of their visibility, their causes and advocacies, and to some degree, their influence in society and in policy decision-making. Very little is known about the growth of these organisations, and the factors that might have contributed to the actualisation of consciousness towards activism and voluntarism. Of particular interest to this study is the role of two particular groups of people: youth, and women. Some questions need to be asked in response to their roles in the development of NGOs. Who are the key players among the many youth and women leaders and volunteers in these NGOs? What motivated them to participate in social activism? What key factors do they perceive as important in the development and sustainability of their causes and organisations? What are the issues confronted by these individuals and groups - and how do they address/resolve them? Such questions provide a springboard for further exploration into the roles of women and youth in activism and the growth of a civil society in Brunei. It is hoped that this pioneering study will help shed light onto the exciting area of Bruneian Third Sector development, as well as address wider questions such as: is the growth in the voluntary sector in Brunei a response to existing institutional gaps, welfare service provision, and service delivery? And, what are the governance and regulatory frameworks that have enabled and/or impeded the growth of Bruneian NGOs? The study looks into the values and meanings attached by activists towards their work within the voluntary community, and immerses into the activities of a selected sample of NGOs in Brunei.

Looking Modest, or Modest Looking? Unraveling the Values and Meanings of Islamic Modesty by Social Influencers in an Age of Muslim Hypervisibility.

  • Institute of Policy Studies
  • Contact:Norainie Ahmad
  • Application invited for:


This study is the second from a series of critical work on Muslim women's identity performance and their increasing hypervisibility in the world of social media. Drawing on feminist epistemology and reflexive writing, this research engages in the narrativization of what it means to look, wear, and be modest, as expressed by contemporary Muslim Bruneian social influencers. The narratives of four women are explored and retold as stories reflecting a journey of finding the self, faith, and expressions of worship and submission.

The Emergence of a Bruneian Civil Society? The Governance and Public Participation of NGOs

  • Institute of Policy Studies
  • Contact:Norainie Ahmad
  • Application invited for:


This study examines how NGOs are governed in the context of a steady increase in the growth of apolitical social movements in Brunei. In particular, we are witness to the transformation in the characteristics of registered societies from being predominantly based on hobbies or sports-and-recreation, to ones that are concerned with 1) the Islamic faith, 2) community development, welfare, and social support, and 3) activism for a sustainable and liveable future. This study will trace the development of the various movements in these three broad categories of NGOs in the last two decades, and examine the changing structures, provisions, regulatory framework, and narratives of the process of NGOisation in Brunei. Particular attention is paid on the notion of an emerging 'civil society' in the country, a concept which is in itself, highly complex and nuanced, and one that should not be reduced to simple enumeration of NGOs and its growth. We suggest a more robust, empirical approach towards understanding their evolution throughout Brunei's history, which must take into account the nation's socio-political, cultural, and changing economic landscapes.

Asymmetry and Leptokurtosis in Financial Data

  • UBD School of Business and Economics
  • Contact:Dr Gamini Premaratne
  • Application invited for:a PhD candidate who is keen to explore this topic for his thesis. Candidate should have a strong b


Many studies found that financial data exhibits non-normal characteristics such as Asymmetry and Leptokurtosis. Though the third-moment or skewness has been studied. there is not yet a good in-depth analysis in fourth moment or leptokurtosis. This study aims to provide an extensive literature on leptokurtosis discuss the importance and use of this measure in relation to financial data and develop suitable tests for testing kurtosis in the presence/absence of skewness.

Use of Pearson family distribution in modeling economics and financial data

  • UBD School of Business and Economics
  • Contact:Dr Gamini Premaratne
  • Application invited for:PhD candidate who is willing to start his PhD in economics or Finance at UBD. Strong background in


Pearson family of distributions has not been used extensively in economics though there are few applications in finance. The objective of this study is to explore the behavior of economics data in relation to this family of distributions.

Developing a new sensitivity measure for market risk

  • UBD School of Business and Economics
  • Contact:Dr Gamini Premaratne
  • Application invited for:Master by research and PhD candidates. Some empirical work of this topic can be done by a student wh


This study aims to search for a new sensitivity measure that can explain the behavior of returns and volatility. Using some preliminary work available in the literature a measure can be developed theoretically and tested empirically.

Operationalizing an Inclusive Islamic Financial Planning Approach: Challenges and Opportunities


Given that poverty is a multi-faceted problem with the understanding that those in poverty are not homogenous, requiring a personalized context to help manage their circumstances, therefore there is a need to consider an inclusive Islamic Financial Planning (IIFP) approach rather than a one-size-fits-all approach towards mitigating poverty. Consideration towards operationalizing IIFP is essential to ascertain if such as approach can be applied in a socio-economic context such as that of Brunei.

Towards Sharing Economy Through Proposed ‘Shared Responsibility’ Model of Takaful: A Sharī‘ah Analysis


Takāful operation is based on shared responsibility, brotherhood, solidarity and cooperation, which provides for mutual financial security and assistance to safeguard participants against a defined risk. The basic notion of Takāful is to bring equity to all parties involved, while the profit earning is not the prime objective, but to help others, who face risks and sharing misfortunes. In today’s social and economic environment Takāful is a necessity since it conforms to the higher objectives of Sharīʿah in the protection of life and wealth. It can be regarded as a risk management technique that is based on the principles of brotherhood, solidarity and compliance with Sharīʿah. It has been observed that almost all Takāful Business Models on the market today provide the use of a Takāful operator (TO) that is led by a Board of Directors nominated by the shareholders. The TO manages the Takāful Fund (TF) on behalf of the participants. Though this operational arrangement has been endorsed by the Sharīʿah scholars, this arrangement is subject to severe criticisms. Given that, the key objective of our proposed ‘Shared Responsibility’ Model is to propose a Takāful business model that matches the expectations of both the shareholders and the participants in line with tenets of Sharīʿah. The model totally disregards the use of a TO, and applies the concept of Mushārakah Taʿāwuniyyah (shared responsibility based on mutual cooperation) at both shareholders and participants’ levels. Thus, it has been termed the 'Mushārakatān' Business Model. To achieve this objective the study explores a) the concepts and foundations involved in the operations of the Takāful system; b) the jurisprudential characterization of cooperative participation and its application in Takāful operations; and c) the potential benefits and issues of proposed model. The study utilizes qualitative methodology, particularly document analysis. The methodology adopted for this study is the collection of data available in published literature consists of relevant academic journal papers, magazine articles, case studies, reports, and other secondary data that are readily available via online. Having accomplished our proposed ‘Shared Responsibility’ Model, it is expected that no Sharīʿah legal problem will remain unresolved, gharar (ambiguity and risk) will not nullify the contracts, and the Takāful participants will hold the ownership of the risk fund. Our attempt also tends to ascertain the following two key points in order for the relevant contracts in ‘Shared Responsibility’ Model to be sound and acceptable: 1) whether ‘shared responsibility’ is analogous to tabarruʿ (donation) to qualify deactivating the causes of gharar on contracts like an ordinary donation carries it out; 2) whether the mutual commitments of Takāful participants to put forward their contributions on the basis of ‘Shared Responsibility’ cause to invalidate the array of a muʿāwadah (commercial) character and as a result the intrinsic gharar.

Sharīʿah and Legal Dimensions of Post Default Sukuk Restructuring: A Critical Analysis


One of the features that differentiate Islamic financing documentation from that of conventional financing is the need for a new legal document to capture every variation of terms and conditions since Islamic finance emphasises on the agreement and mutual consent of contracting parties. The requirement for a new legal document becomes more apparent when it involves the restructuring of a financing. The importance of a legal document emphasises the need for restructuring of an Islamic financial instrument to be considered as vehicles that could provide the customers with some relevant financial facilities. One of the key objectives of Sukuk restructuring is to adjust the debtor’s obligations to ensure the creditors are repaid their principal and additional dues in light of the value of their assets and the potential enterprise profitability. Unlike conventional finance, the issue of post default Sukuk restructuring in Sharīʿah-compliant finance is related to the circumstances and conditions under which a facility may be restructured. In the case of a restructured facility, a related Sharīʿah issue that arises is whether a change of contract means a new contract has to be entered. This remains debated among Shariah scholars. The Sharīʿah Advisory Committee of Bank Negara Malaysia has attempted to resolve the issue by stating that based on agreement, the financing period for the customer may be extended without the need for a new contract. Such agreement provided that both parties satisfy all concluded promises and the price imposed on the customer does not exceed the original sale price. This study would examine among other things, the Sharīʿah viewpoint of the restructuring of Sukuk and potential solutions to unresolved Sharīʿah issues in light of the past and recent declaration of some Sukuk defaults as non-Sharīʿah compliant.

Transaction Cost: The Economising Role of Islamic Financial Institutions


The primary aim of this exploratory research is to identify the theoretical, and legal grounds of transaction cost from the perspectives of Islamic Economics and mainstream economics. The underlying purpose being a systematic investigation on how property rights and their distribution impacts transaction cost economics under both schools of thought. While most economic institutions are playing their respective critical roles especially in recent years of global economic challenges, property right is beginning to receive due attention with regards to minimizsing transaction cost. Also, the renewed interest in Islamic Economics as an alternative approach to tackling equity and governance issues adds to the relevance and timeliness of the present work. A thorough analysis of Transaction Costs Economics (TCE) in Fiqh al-Mu`amalat and the effective application of property rights to minimise it can offer practical solutions to allocative policies. The economising role of property rights as prescribed by the Sharīʿah is expected to work positively towards transaction cost economics.

Assessing Digital Literacy skills of Digital Native Generation in higher education

  • Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education
  • Contact:Juraidah Musa
  • Application invited for:Master Degree


With heavily rely on digital technologies, teaching and learning processes in higher education requires students to have digital literacy skills. According to Eshet (2012), digital literacy skill is a survival skill which students need in order to function effectively in digital learning environments. With Eshet’s model of digital literacy skill as a framework, this project aims to assess the digital literaciness of students in higher education. Based on Prensky’s assumption, these students are categorised as the digital native generation, in which this generation lives their lives immersed in digital technologies and that they learn differently from previous generations.

Project Title: Integrated Innovative Curriculum & Assessment (IICA) Project sub-section: Content-Language Integrated Learning

  • Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education
  • Contact:Dr Norashikin Yusof
  • Application invited for:


This research project consists of five designed-based studies to inform the applicability of the proposed Innovative Inter-disciplinary Curriculum and Assessment Model (IICA) in (a) disseminating interest and motivation in students’ learning of science and mathematics, (b) instilling spiritual and social awareness embedded in the scientific and mathematical concepts, (c) promoting students’ understanding of science and mathematic concepts, and (d) improving students achievement in science and mathematics curriculum. The activities planned are: (1) Designing curriculum using a modified technological, pedagogical and content knowledge framework with personalized multi-model assessments or the Personalized Pedagogy, Assessment and Technology (PPAT) matrix; (2) Implementing and evaluating the CUP strategy for the teaching and learning (pedagogy) of the content in selected schools; (3) Investigating students’ understanding of the content through the social-semiotics and language integration; (4) Investigating the outcomes of multi-model formative assessments of students’ learning of science and mathematics concepts, and (5) Examining the effect of teacher-student interactions on students’ mathematising development. The outcome of the research project will be i) the Model for Innovative Inter-disciplinary Curriculum and Assessment for curriculum and assessment design, which can be replicated and disseminated to teachers as part of their continuous professional development. ii) innovative teaching and learning resources developed through the implementation of the IICA model. iii) books and journal articles publications on IICA model in international reputable publication houses.

INNOVATIVE INTERDISCIPLINARY CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT (IICA)

  • Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education
  • Contact:Dr Sallimah M. Salleh
  • Application invited for:Masters of Education (by Research) PhD in Education


This research project consists of five designed-based studies to inform the applicability of the proposed Innovative Inter-disciplinary Curriculum and Assessment Model (IICA) in (a) disseminating interest and motivation in students’ learning of science and mathematics, (b) instilling spiritual and social awareness embedded in the scientific and mathematical concepts, (c) promoting students’ understanding of science and mathematic concepts, and (d) improving students achievement in science and mathematics curriculum. The activities planned are: (1) Designing curriculum using a modified technological, pedagogical and content knowledge framework with personalized multi-model assessments or the Personalized Pedagogy, Assessment and Technology (PPAT) matrix; (2) Implementing and evaluating the CUP strategy for the teaching and learning (pedagogy) of the content in selected schools; (3) Investigating students’ understanding of the content through the social-semiotics and language integration; (4) Investigating the outcomes of multi-model formative assessments of students’ learning of science and mathematics concepts, and (5) Examining the effect of teacher-student interactions on students’ mathematising development. The outcome of the research project will be i) the Model for Innovative Inter-disciplinary Curriculum and Assessment for curriculum and assessment design, which can be replicated and disseminated to teachers as part of their continuous professional development. ii) innovative teaching and learning resources developed through the implementation of the IICA model. iii) books and journal articles publications on IICA model in international reputable publication houses.

Innovating Classroom Teaching and Learning: Design and Implementation

  • Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education
  • Contact:Dr Sallimah M. Salleh
  • Application invited for:Masters of Education (by research) PhD in Education


This research project aims to improve students’ achievement in Science, Mathematics and Language education. This research proposes an intervention strategy that will inform stake-holders on how an innovative classroom teaching could promote conceptual understanding, and motivate students to participate in Science, Mathematics and English education. The aim of this study is to design an innovative inter-disciplinary curriculum, develop resources using applications for a technology enhanced teaching and learning, implement the curriculum in classroom using the proto-type resource, and assess the impact of the innovative inter-disciplinary curriculum and resource application in primary and secondary school students’ achievement and attainment of conceptual understanding. It is hypothesized that the innovative inter-disciplinary curriculum will be a useful model for classroom teachers to replicate, and the application for resource development can be used to develop teaching and learning materials. Such model and applications will empower teachers to collaborate in designing their own inter-disciplinary curriculum and resources. The outcome of the research will have a significant contribution towards teaching and learning in primary and secondary Science, Mathematics and English language education, which will be indicated by the improved students’ achievement and the attainment of the concepts, and observed interest to pursue Science, Mathematics and English at higher education.